2 Further Education and Training Problem StatementImportance of TVET Colleges emphasised as seen in key government plans and strategies.The central role of TVET colleges in addressing skills shortages and advancing economic growth in SA has been recognised.Therefore there is a need to focus attention on the TVET college sector to increase access and improve quality of provision.
3 Further Education and Training (Cont) FET TTT ObjectivesIdentify measures for strengthening and supporting TVET colleges in order toexpand access andimprove the quality of provision.
4 Further Education and Training Notions of Access and QualityKey words in TTT’s mandate are expanding access and improving quality of provision, need to unpack access.3 categories of access that should be understood and used as a basis for fulfilling mandate:Access into colleges (increased enrolments)Access inside colleges (outcomes and efficiencies)Access out (into labour market, further education, self-employment)Recognising that quality can (only) be achieved through, and by means of open and unfettered institutional access and that access cannot be achieved without attention being paid to quality.
5 Further Education and Training ChallengesClose on 2 million students enrolled in public and private PSET programmes in 2012.54% in HEIs32% in TVET Colleges (DHET, 2013)South Africa,2012 (DHET, 2013)FETCollegesUniversitiesSouth Africa,2007 (DHET, 2008)TVET Colleges2.5 million1.6 million2030 Vision (White Paper)
6 Further Education and Training Challenges (Cont.)Colleges currently seen as a poorer cousin of HEIs: parity of esteem not a reality. They cater mainly for those who have left school – should ideally provide education and training to members of their own and nearby communities and develop skills for local industry, commerce and public-sector institutions. In this regard, need to revisit their purpose.Colleges have become central part of government strategy in the provision of PSET, targeted for the greatest expansion and diversification (White Paper, 2013). Need to ensure they are properly resourced, led and managed to fulfill this role.
7 Further Education and Training A range of interventions since democracyVery key: the DHET Turnaround Strategy 2012
8 Further Education and Training Conceptual Framework: The Notion of a Developmental StateMajor policies issued by the post-apartheid government since1994 revolve around the notion of a developmental state.Most of these policies make explicit reference of the catalyst role the TVET College sector should play within the post-school education and training (PSET) system towards addressing the challenges faced by a developmental state.
9 Further Education and Training (Cont) The central question contained in the White Paper (DHET: 2013) is the following: how can skills development support the creation of a developmental state?A response to this requires an understanding of the developmental role of TVET Colleges and a re-conceptualisation of their purpose in a developmental state.
10 Further Education and Training MethodologyFET TTT Indaba in March 2013 to involve sector stakeholders, experts and policy makers in the identification of blockages.Three work streams established to further engage with themes identified at the Indaba which were:PartnershipsPositive Learning ExperiencePathways
11 Further Education and Training Methodology (Cont)Research commissioned which conducted a desktop review of the sector. Five reports produced.There was continuous engagement with stakeholders and experts through task team meetings and comments and inputs.A roundtable of sector specialists held in January 2014 where the draft reports were discussed.
12 Further Education and Training Blockage 1: PurposeCurrent Purpose limited, its main focus is on employment in the formal labour marketRecommendationGet the longer-term purpose right: will speak to overall long-term Mission and Vision for the sector.Purpose should reflect TVET for economic and broader societal and developmental objectives (involvement of the DTI, EDD, NPC, national business formations, national labour formations).TVET for local economy (local businesses, provincial and local government, informal sector).Immediate focus should be on occupations and the acquisition of mid-level skills.
13 Purpose of TVET Sector Occupational routes Purpose Immediate Term Medium TermLong TermFocusLabour market (formal and informal labour market)Community/local needs(CETC and TVET Colleges)Expanded, comprehensive and differentiated collegesTarget GroupPre-employedEmployedUnemployed/ Post-employedYouths and Adults (both pre-employed and employed and un/post employed)Alignment withDTI (Industrial Policies)EDD (National Dept)Local Labour marketsEconomic and CommunityResponsiveness to the learner (in broadest sense)The main purpose of these colleges is to train young post-school leavers, providing them with the skills (incorporating knowledge and attitudes) necessary for employment (formal)Youths and adults “building skills for work and life”Main purpose to provide labour market needs and community developmentEconomic, equity and transformationLearning ModeF/T, with P/T provision (WIL crucial)- Community engagementMultiple modes – online, e-learning, blended learningOccupational routes
14 Further Education and Training Blockage 2: Institutional EffectivenessIssues RaisedColleges need to strengthen their strategy and M&E functions. The M&E structure and function is very important and should ensure that strategy always aligned to purpose. The oversight role of DHET very important in this regard.Partnerships must be part of the institutional psyche and should happen at all levels although driven from the CEO’s office.Key to institutional effectiveness is human resources at the leadership, management and lecturer levels.
15 Further Education and Training Issues raised (cont.)Inadequate Lecturer Capacity (both in technical knowledge and numbers).Not enough lectures have the capacity to take charge of their learning environments, most don’t have the necessary competences (the combination of a teaching qualification and a trade in programmes that industry is mostly interested in).With the envisaged expansion of student enrolments, not enough lecturers in the system to cope with the expansion.Recommendation 1Improve college governance and management
16 Further Education and Training ActionsStrengthen the partnership between DHET and individual TVET Colleges.Roles and responsibilities of the two outlined.Establish accountability and quality assurance systems within TVET Colleges themselves.
17 Further Education and Training Actions (Cont)Ensure that systems within the TVET Colleges are compliant with national objectives and standards.Office of the Principal to be enabled to perform its primary role of institutional vision and mission management and leadership and Institutional coordination and accountability management.
18 Further Education and Training Recommendation 2Accelerate lecturer development interventionsActionsA professional body for TVET lecturers should be established, which will determine minimum requirements for professional registration and the minimum professional qualifications.Develop a holistic CPD model that includes professional qualifications, coaching, mentoring, peer observation and feedback.
19 Further Education and Training Actions (Cont)Develop a strategy to recruit and train college lecturers to allow the sector to cope with the expansion programme and to also address the current student-lecturer ratio which varies between 1:47 to 1:84 in some provinces.Encourage the establishment of “Communities of Expert Practice” for college lecturers
20 Further Education and Training Blockage 3: Programme OfferingChallengesThere is a lack of clarity regarding the existing pathways, in respect of:Entry routes (into a college);Exit routes (out of a college), whether it be to higher learning, employment or self-employment.There is inadequate articulation between qualifications as well as programmes which span more than one sub-qualification framework, which leads to dead ends for learners.The programmes and qualifications in the colleges are currently considered to be complex to administer, difficult to understand and often poorly quality-assured.
21 Further Education and Training RecommendationsDevelop specific pathways which lead to employment and further learning opportunities. These should be targeted at Grade 9s, Grade 12s, NEETS and those looking for occupational/professional careers.Develop conversion or bridging courses to allow for flexibility and mobility within the college sector; to achieve the vision of an articulated PSET system, one in which there are no dead-ends for learners.White Paper calls for a process of reviewing qualifications, therefore should be a multi-stakeholder review team, especially including industry, and the team must be expert-driven rather than too heavy on stakeholder representation.Develop entrepreneurial skills across all disciplines in the TVET College sector, on a compulsory basis, through the provision of universal entrepreneurship education programmes.
22 Further Education and Training Recommendations (Cont)White Paper calls for a process of reviewing qualifications, therefore should be a multi-stakeholder review team, especially including industry, and the team must be expert- driven rather than too heavy on stakeholder representation.Develop entrepreneurial skills across all disciplines in the TVET College sector, on a compulsory basis, through the provision of universal entrepreneurship education programmes.