Presentation on theme: "The Colonies Mature: Government, Economy, and Culture of Colonial America in the 18th Century Chapter 5."— Presentation transcript:
1The Colonies Mature: Government, Economy, and Culture of Colonial America in the 18th Century Chapter 5
2Colonial Government 3 types of colonies: Corporate, Royal, Proprietary Corporate/self governing=company/group of people (Virginia / Massachusetts for a while)Royal=owned by the king (New York)Proprietary=belonged to one individual (PA)All colonies had representative government (House of Burgesses 1619)Assembly elected by the people—controlled taxes made most lawsGovernor/Upper house appointed by the King—ran day to day affairs of colony represented the King (assembly controlled their salary)
3Colonies Mature: Growth of Trade/Backcoutnry Backcountry=area away from the coast (the frontier)Poorer people, less settled, more of a mix of Indian and EuropeanFelt slighted by the elites close to the coast (Bacon’s Rebellion)Trade: Shipping centered in New EnglandAll the colonies participated in trade (Atlantic Economy)Trade between colonies and England and other European countriesTrade between colonies and Africa/Caribbean (triangle trade)
5Efforts to Control Trade: Mercantilism The amount of gold in the world is essentially fixedA nation increases its power by increasing its stockpiles of goldGold is increased by minimizing imports (buying) and maximizing exports (selling)Colonies=way to supply raw materials without sending gold to a foreign country & buy English productsMercantilist Policies—make sure that trade involving America benefitted England
6Examples of Mercantilism: Navigation Acts Navigation Acts of 1650—all trade had to be conducted on English (or American) vesselsNavigation Acts of 1660—Ship crews had to be ¾ English (or American) certain products (tobacco, sugar, etc) could only be shipped to EnglandNavigation Acts of 1663—Certain goods that were being shipped to the colonies from other countries had to be shipped to England firstNavigation Acts accepted in theory (English had a right to pass them) but defied in practice (smuggling) by the colonistsEfforts to stop smuggling would lead to problems
7Colonial Culture: Enlightenment Enlightenment occurring in Europe beginning in the late 1600’s, active in the colonies as wellApplied reason and logic to political worldMajor political thinkersHobbes—state of natureLocke—contract theory of government, natural rightsVoltaire—religious tolerationMontesquieu—three branches of governmentRousseau—social contract (democracy, sort of)Reason and logic will be applied to almost every aspect of society—including religion
8Colonial Culture: Religion Problems for religion in the 18th centuryReligion was once king, not so much by the 1700’sMaterialism wore away at religious devotionSalem Witch TrialsHalf-Way CovenantEnlightenment led people to become even less devotedDeism—belief in God, but don’t believe in any one particular religion, God doesn’t take an active role in the daily happenings of the world (watchmaker God)Stage was set for a religious revival: Great Awakening
9Great Awakening: 1730’s-1740’s Major religious revivalBegan in New EnglandJonathan Edwards, “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”George WhitefieldMore emotional than previous religious movementsReaction to the intellectualism of the enlightenmentBig boost for more evangelical churchesBaptistsColony-wide movement—helped set the stage for the Revolution?????
10Colonial Culture: Education New England—each town had to have an elementary school (teach kids how to read the Bible)No public education in the SouthMost colleges affiliated with religious groups (train ministers)Harvard/Yale—congregationalBrown—BaptistWilliam and Mary—AnglicanDartmouth—missionary school for IndiansPrinceton—PresbyterianPenn—non-religiousRutgers—Dutch Reformed
11Colonial Culture: American Identity? By the mid 1700’s only about half of the colonists in British North America were of British descentEnglish-49%African-19%Scottish-7%German-7%Scots-Irish-5%Irish-3%Dutch-3%Other European-9%Were the colonists beginning to view themselves as Americans rather than British?How could this help lead to revolution?What type of events help to lead to a sense of national identity?