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Presentation on theme: "PBIS I NDIANA : E STABLISHING A S TATEWIDE N ETWORK OF C ULTURALLY R ESPONSIVE PBIS Shana Ritter The Equity Project at Indiana University EQUITY ALLIANCE."— Presentation transcript:

1 PBIS I NDIANA : E STABLISHING A S TATEWIDE N ETWORK OF C ULTURALLY R ESPONSIVE PBIS Shana Ritter The Equity Project at Indiana University EQUITY ALLIANCE Phoenix. Arizona Phoenix. Arizona March 1, 2011

2 THE EQUITY PROJECT AT I NDIANA U NIVERSITY A consortium of projects dedicated to providing high quality data to educational decision-makers in order to better understand and address issues regarding educational equity and bridge the gap between research and practice. Our mission is to provide evidence-based information specific to issues of school discipline, school violence, special education and equality of educational opportunity for all students. The Equity Project supports educators and educational institutions in developing and maintaining safe, effective, and equitable learning opportunities for all students.

3 PBIS INDIANA GOAL: “To develop and establish a sustainable statewide network of culturally responsive Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports” State and federally funded: 4 ½ years State and federally funded: 4 ½ years Integrating PBIS, culture Integrating PBIS, culture Development of six model sites Development of six model sites Work with out-of-compliance schools Work with out-of-compliance schools A collaboration of Center for Education and Life Long Learning (CELL) and The Equity Project at I.U.

4 Model Sites PBIS INDIANA Resource Center State Leadership & Advisory Teams National Advisory Board Assigned Sites PartialPBISSchools Knowledge & Capacity-Building ImplementationPhase Years 1-3 Statewide Scale- up & Sustainability PBS Indiana: Scaling Up a New Model Year 4


6 F ACT OR F ICTION ? Out-of-school suspensions and expulsions are effective methods for changing student behavior.

7 There is no evidence that out-of- school suspension or expulsion are effective in changing student behavior. 30-50% of students suspended are repeat offenders Suspension functions as reinforcement...rather than as punishment (Tobin, Sugai & Colvin,1996)

8 F ACT OR F ICTION ? Suspension and expulsion are associated with improved school climates, lower dropout rates, and higher achievement.

9 Higher rates of suspension and expulsion are associated with poorer school climate, higher dropout rates, and lower achievement. Predict higher future rates of misbehavior & discipline concerns Long term relationship with dropout, (Raffaele-Mendez; Ekstrom, 1986) failure to graduate on time, juvenile incarceration (Skiba et al, 2002)

10 F ACT OR F ICTION ? Suspension and expulsion creates equity for all students.

11 Minority disproportionality in suspension and expulsion has been consistently documented over the last 30 years. Black students suspended 2-3x as frequently Racial/Ethnic Disproportionality also found in: Office referrals Expulsion Corporal Punishment Students with disabilities over-represented: 11-14% of population Approx. 20-24% of suspensions

12 D ISPROPORTIONALITY IN S CHOOL D ISCIPLINE AT THE N ATIONAL L EVEL : 1972, 2000, 2003 Note: Derived from U.S. Department of Education, 2004

13 F OR W HAT B EHAVIORS ARE S TUDENTS R EFERRED ? White students referred more for: Smoking Vandalism Leaving w/o permission Obscene Language Black students referred more for: Disrespect Excessive Noise Threat Loitering Of 32 infractions, only 8 significant differences:

14 W HAT IS PBIS I NDIANA ? (CR-PBIS) PBIS INDIANA blends evidence-based findings concerning effective implementation of SW-PBIS with culturally responsive practices, resulting in perspectives, instruction and interventions which promote equal access to learning and success for all students.

15 G OALS & A CTIVITIES District Level Data Collection Evaluation/Research Work with Assigned Sites Ensure CR Integrity School Level School Training Coaching Work with Demo. Sites Ensure PBS Integrity Equity ProjectCELL Commitment to PBS, CR, CSR, National Network


17 Culture: What Is It? Culture: the language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and material objects that are passed from one generation to another. Every person on the planet is a member of at least one culture ( Glenn Hoffarth,2002)

18 Three Things To Remember About Culture... Culture is dynamic, not static No culture is monolithic …. There are cultures within cultures Our identity, including our values, beliefs and behaviors, are formed by Culture. Language, ethnicity and race, as well as socio-economic status, education, occupation, personal experience, community, family and personality traits all influence who we are.

19 T HREE K EY F ACETS OF C ULTURAL R ESPONSIVITY 1. U nderstanding your cultural identity. What do you value? What is your style of communication? What are your strengths and challenges around teaching, learning, and behavior management? What are your expectations? What do you see through your cultural lens?

20 T HREE K EY F ACETS OF C ULTURAL R ESPONSIVITY 2. Understanding your student’s cultural identity. What do they value? What is their style of communication? What are their strengths and challenges around teaching, learning, and behavior? What are their expectations? What do they see through their cultural lenses?

21 T HREE K EY F ACETS OF C ULTURAL R ESPONSIVITY 3. Understanding what happens when different cultures intersect.  How do you capitalize on cultural capital?  How do you bridge differences?  How do you create access to opportunities?

22 Self What cultural groups do I identify with? What are Awareness my values, beliefs, ways of communicating? Cultural How do I interpret the behaviors, beliefs, values Awareness of other cultural groups? Am I aware of my biases and prejudices towards other cultural groups? Knowledge Am I knowledgeable about communication and conflict styles of different cultural groups, and the implications those differences might have on educational outcomes? Skill Do I have the skills needed to work effectively across cultures? Actions Do I actively change my perspective and behaviors in order to adapt in culturally diverse settings? Do I seek out interactions to broaden my perspectives about cultural difference?

23 Cultural Knowledge Skill Action Self Awareness Culturally Responsive Practice Cultural Awareness

24 SYSTEMS PRACTICES DATA Positive Behavior Interventions & Support OUTCOMES Adapted from OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

25 25 PRACTICES Supporting Staff Behavior Supporting Decision Making Supporting Student Behavior SYSTEMS DATA OUTCOMES Social Competence & Academic Achievement Cultural Equity Cultural Knowledge and Self- Awareness Cultural Validity Cultural Relevance and Validation Vincent, C.G., Randall, C., Cartledge, G., Tobin, T.J., & Swain-Bradway, J. (in press). Elements of SW PBS that is Culturally Responsiv e

26 A B LUEPRINT FOR C ULTURALLY R ESPONSIVE PBIS “ A profound focus on behavior you want.” Look at the data racial/ethnic disparities infractions & consequences Make meaning of the data represent all groups and perspectives consider cultural norms Develop a culturally responsive lens leading to equitable interventions know our students, their community and families Evaluate if the system is working equally well for all students have we changed both rate and disproportionality?

27 CR-PBIS F RAMEWORK PBIS District & School Leadership Teams Coaching Classroom Systems Culturally Responsive Practice Addressing Eq uity Three- Tiered System




31 W HAT DOES C ULTURALLY R ESPONSIVE PBIS LOOK LIKE ? ComponentCulturally Responsive PBIS Establish Commitment District and school-wide commitment to addressing racial/ethnic disparities Admin support and active involvement Faculty/staff support Establish and Maintain Team Representative team established: racial/ethnic, SES diversity, admin, teachers, gen ed., special ed., families Self-Assessment Survey and interviews on culture Disaggregated disciplinary data Hypotheses about data that include culture Develop culturally responsive interventions Strengths based Action Plan developed and presented to faculty Implementation fidelity

32 ComponentCulturally Responsive PBIS School-wide Expectations Examine intersection of culture and school How does a cultural perspective affect instruction and management? Teach with awareness of cultural differences Bridge the gap between school and home behavioral expectations Define school-wide behavior expectations Plans to teach expectations Reinforcement system Define consequences for behaviors of concern Establish Information Systems Disaggregate outcome data To what extent has intervention worked for all groups? How does awareness of culture affect teaching? System for gathering useful information Process for summarizing data Process for using information for decision-making Build Capacity for Function- based Support Text-based discussion and critical friends to enhance awareness of culture Institutional procedures for ensuring ongoing dialogue Personnel with behavioral expertise Time and procedures for identification, assessment, and implementation School initiatives in alignment

33 C REATING A S CHOOL W IDE P LAN 1. School-wide Behavioral Expectations 2. Setting-Specific Behavioral Expectations 3. Teaching of behavior in settings 4. Establish Adult Responsibilities for Settings 5. System to Acknowledge Expected Behaviors 6. System to Respond to Behavioral Errors 7. Use data to monitor and make decisions

34 School Wide Expectations 1. Respect Learning 2. Respect Yourself 3. Respect Others 4. Respect the Environment

35 U SING A CR L ENS IN ALL A SPECTS It is human nature to assume that our unique individual and cultural behaviors, beliefs, and perspectives are universal human behaviors, beliefs, and perspectives (Sue & Sue, 2003).

36 Arrival Respect Learning  Arrive between 8:30 and 8:45.  Walk to breakfast starting at 8:30.  Walk to class at 8:45.  Remove hats before entering building. Respect Yourself  Walk on the sidewalk. Respect Others  Wait on sidewalk near front entrance, or in foyer.  Stand away from doors.  Follow directions of adult supervisors.  Use a level 1 voice. Respect the Environment  Use eyes only with objects in foyer.  Wipe your feet.  Keep hands off glass.

37 T EACHING L ESSON P LAN T EMPLATE Settin g Identify the SW Expectations and why they are important for this setting. Briefly describe the activity and what students are going to do. Student Engagement/ check for understanding: Student engagement/check for understanding: Use the matrix to develop demonstrations of examples, non-examples. Engage students in distinguishing between the two. Always end on an example. Demonstration 1: Demonstration 2: Demonstration 3: Student engagement/check for understanding: Student Practice: Additional student engagement/check for understanding Follow-Up Activities: Check for student understanding:

38 Adult Responsibilities Arrival Arrive at duty post by 8:30 Greet and interact with students Provide reminders of expected behaviors Greet students at classroom doors if no duty

39 D ATA S YSTEM Big Five Average Referrals Per Day, Per Month Referrals by Problem Behavior Referrals by Location Referrals by Student Referrals by Time Ethnicity data Suspension and Expulsion Data Suspension and Expulsion Data by Ethnicity

40 W HAT DO YOU SEE IN SCHOOLS USING SW-PBS THAT CONSIDERS CULTURE ? Teams meeting regularly to: Review disaggregated data Determine if PBS and culturally responsive practices are being used Determine if practices are being effective for all student subgroups and their families Identify the smallest changes that are likely to produce the largest effects Focusing on the use of evidence-based practices

41 W HAT DO YOU SEE IN SCHOOLS USING SW-PBS THAT CONSIDERS CULTURE ? Staff engaged in developing awareness of students’ and their own cultural backgrounds. Staff engaged in difficult conversations that directly address disparities evident in data. Team-based systems for Targeted and Intensive behavior support for youth with more significant needs. Teams include families.

42 S UPPORTING I MPLEMENTATION OF CR-PBS Cultural Competence and Responsivity Demonstrate trust and respect for all cultures, abilities, and experiences Validate students’ cultural identity in classroom practices and instructional materials Understand how one’s own cultural views and values influence practice Communicating with families in ways which are culturally meaningful

43 Q UESTIONS TO CONSIDER … Do our methods of behavior management draw form the experience of our students and their communities? Do our teaching styles relate to the multiplicity of ways in which our students learn? Are we engaged in professional development that is ongoing and connected to practice and achievement? Have we considered a range of possible hypotheses? Who is not at the decision making table? 43

44 If our examination and understanding of the root causes of social inequality are too shallow, then our approach to corrective action will necessarily be superficial and ineffective. - Christine Sleeter If our examination and understanding of the root causes of social inequality are too shallow, then our approach to corrective action will necessarily be superficial and ineffective. - Christine Sleeter

45 TOOLS AND RESOURCES ¢ Cultural Responsivity Self – Assessment ¢ 5x5 Walkthrough ¢ District Data Audit ¢ SAS ¢ District Readiness ¢ District Leadership Team Functions ¢ CR Activities

46 C Current Status Feature Priority for Improvement 5 Professional Development


48 D IFFICULT D IALOGUES Conversing about issues of equity, especially race, is a developmental process; ample time to build trust is necessary.

49 O WNERSHIP Ownership of the process grows through action: ongoing dialogue with colleagues, gaining a deeper understanding of the issues, design, implementation, and assessment.

50 S USTAINABILITY Addressing issues of equity is more likely to be ongoing: When it is viewed as an effort that benefits all children. When incorporated into the district’s overall plans for school improvement and other initiatives. When the community is involved.

51 C REATING CHANGE “ The world changes according to the way people see it, and if you can alter, even by a millimeter, the way people look at reality, then you can change the world.” James Baldwin “ The world changes according to the way people see it, and if you can alter, even by a millimeter, the way people look at reality, then you can change the world.” James Baldwin

52 PBIS INDIANA WWW. INDIANA. EDU /~ PBISIN S HANA R ITTER (P ROJECTS C OORDINATOR ) R USS S KIBA (D IRECTOR ) S ANDI C OLE (C O - D IRECTOR ) The Equity Project at I.U. Center for Evaluation and Education Policy 1900 E. 10th St. Bloomington, IN 47406 812-855-4438 Shana Ritter


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