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Introduction to multi-objective optimization We often have more than one objective This means that design points are no longer arranged in strict hierarchy There are points that are clearly poorer than others because all objectives are worse In optimization jargon we call these points dominated Points that are not dominated are called non-dominated or Pareto optimal

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Definition of Pareto optimality For a problem with m objective functions, a design variable vector x* is Pareto optimal if and only if there is no vector x in the feasible space with the characteristics

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Problem domination We have two objectives that are to be minimized. The following are the pairs of objectives at 10 design points. Mark the non-dominated ones. (67,71) (48,72) (29,88) (-106, 294) (32,13), (-120,163), (103,-30) (-78,114) (-80,143) (75,-171)

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Work choice example Item (task)Pay ($)Time (min)Fun index 1133 2252 3122 4321 Minimize time and maximize fun so that you make at least $100. Will need between 33.3 to 100 items. Time can vary from 66.7 minutes to 300. Fun can vary between 33.3 and 300.

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Example Item (task)Pay ($)/hour Total time (hours) Total fun 1205300 2244.17100 3303.33100 4901.1133.3 task 2 is dominated. Tasks 1,3,4 are Pareto optimal

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Multi-objective Formulation ItemPayTimeFun 1133 2252 3122 4321

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Solution by enumeration In the range of four variables calculate time and fun for all combination that produce exactly $100 Pareto front is upper boundary and it is almost a straight line. Matlab code given in note page.

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Pay-fun Problem Formulate the problem of maximizing fun and pay for five hours (300 minutes). Obtain the Pareto front by enumeration and plot. Write the equation for the Pareto front (fun as function of pay).

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More efficient solution methods Methods that try to avoid generating the Pareto front –Generate “utopia point” –Define optimum based on some measure of distance from utopia point Generating entire Pareto front –Weighted sum of objectives with variable coefficients –Optimize one objective for a range of constraints on the others –Niching methods with population based algorithms

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The utopia point is (66.7,300). One approach is to use it to form a compromise objective as shown above. It gives time=168 minutes, fun=160 (x 3 =76,x 4 =8)

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Series of constraints The next slides provides a Matlab segment for solving this optimization problem using the function fmincon.

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Matlab segment x0 = [10 10 10 10]; for fun_idx = 30:5:300 A = [-1 -2 -1 -3; -3 -2 -2 -1]; b = [-100;-fun_idx]; lb = zeros(4,1); options = optimset('Display','off'); [x,fval,exitflag,output,lambda] = fmincon('myfun',x0,A,b,[],[],lb,[],[],options); pareto_sol(fun_idx,:) = x; pareto_fun(fun_idx,1) = fval; pareto_fun(fun_idx,2) = 3*x(1) + 2*x(2) + 2*x(3) + x(4); End function f = myfun(x) f = 3*x(1) + 4*x(2) + 2*x(3) + 2*x(4);

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Pareto-front Problem Generate the Pareto front for the pay and fun maximization using a series of constraints, and also find a compromise point on it using the utopia point. What is responsible for the slope discontinuity in the Pareto front on Slide 10?

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