Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 The Body, Medicine, and Health Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 13 The Body, Medicine, and Health Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
The Body The Thinking of Michel Foucault (1926-1984; French) In Discipline and Punish (1979) he is concerned with the punishment of criminals’ bodies. In The Birth of the Clinic (1975) he analyzes how medicine shifted from focusing on using lists to diagnose diseases to focusing on human beings. The Sexual Body In The History of Sexuality (1980) he urged people to focus on sexuality that pushed one’s body to the limit in sexual experiences. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
The Healthy Body: Lifestyle, Beauty, and Fitness Beauty: The Myth In The Beauty Myth (1991), Naomi Wolf argues that the media confront the vast majority of people with an unattainable standard of beauty. The Quest for the Ideal The rewards for being beautiful are so great that many try to at least approximate the mythic ideal. Enormous sums are spent on fitness workouts, cosmetics, and cosmetic surgeri es. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
The Healthy Body: Lifestyle, Beauty, and Fitness The Consumption of Beauty Beauty has become a commodity that can be bought through effort, pain, or with expenditures of large sums of money. Fitness and the Healthy Body Physical activity, sports, and bodybuilding are ways of obtaining a more beautiful, healthy body. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Body Modifications Body modifications have been nearly universal across societies and throughout history. Body modifications, especially tattoos, are becoming mainstream. Body modifications are a fashion statement. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Risky Behaviors Ulrich Beck (born in 1944; German) argues that we live in a “risk society.” People take a wide range of risks that jeopardize their health. Examples include what people do not do (not having regular checkups with their physician) and what they do (cigarette smoking). Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
The Sociology of Health and Medicine Medical sociology is the largest specialty area within sociology. Medical sociology is concerned with the “social consequences of health and illness.” Medical sociology addresses a wide variety of specific issues including health inequalities by social class, gender, and race-ethnicity. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
The Sociology of Health and Medicine The Sick The sick role are expectations of the way sick people are supposed to act. The Medical Profession The medical profession has experienced declining power as well as status and wealth. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
The Sociology of Health and Medicine Weaknesses in the U.S. Healthcare System The United States spends about 16% of its GDP on health care. Many people are forced into bankruptcy because of their inability to pay their medical bills. In spite of money the United States spends on its healthcare system, its life expectancy is 50 th in the world. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
The Sociology of Health and Medicine Inequalities in U.S. Health Care Social Class and Health The lower one’s social class, the poorer one’s health is likely to be. Race and Health Overall, whites tend to have better health than blacks and Hispanics, but this is closely tied to the relationship between social class and health. Gender and Health While women live longer than men, there is a widespread view that they have poorer health than men. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
The Sociology of Health and Medicine Healthcare Reform in the United States New healthcare legislation was enacted into law in 2010. Some of its key aspects are: By 2019, approximately 96% of Americans will have health insurance. Virtually all Americans will be required to have health insurance (or they will be fined). Employers with more than 50 employees will be required to provide health insurance for them or be fined. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
The Sociology of Health and Medicine Consumerism and Health Care Attention is shifting from the producers of health care (medical professionals, medical insurance companies, etc.) to consumers of that care. Prosumers and DIY Health Care Increasingly, patients shop around for physicians and treatments. Pharmaceutical companies now advertise directly to consumers. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
The Sociology of Health and Medicine The Internet and the Consumption of Health Care The Internet is allowing people to find healthcare providers (including information about them) more easily. More information about healthcare-related data can be found on the Internet. Consumer/patients can shop for medical care on the Internet in much the same way they shop for automobiles. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
The Sociology of Health and Medicine Digitizing Medical Records and Televisits Denmark is one of the countries in the forefront of digital medicine. The United States lags far behind. Telemedicine makes it possible for patients to use simple medical technologies (like blood pressure monitors) from their home, and have a teleconference with their doctor. At the “NowClinic” patients and doctors communicate using video chat. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
The Sociology of Health and Medicine Globalization and Health Growing Global Inequality Globalization has tended to widen global disparities in health. People in poor nations tend to have poorer health as a result of limited access to health care. There is a 19-year gap in life expectancy between high- and low- income countries. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
The Sociology of Health and Medicine Globalization and Health Disease The vast majority of acute and chronic diseases occur at younger ages in low- and middle-income countries. Malnutrition There are roughly 850 million people in the world who suffer disproportionately from hunger and malnutrition. Undernutrition is a form of malnutrition involving an inadequate intake of nutrients including calories, vitamins, and minerals. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
The Sociology of Health and Medicine Globalization and Health Smoking A highly profitable tobacco industry continues to be central to the global economy. India accounts for almost one third of the world’s tobacco-related deaths. China consumes about 30% of the world’s cigarettes and many Chinese appear to have little knowledge of the health hazards associated with smoking. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
The Sociology of Health and Medicine Globalization and Health: Borderless Diseases HIV/AIDS Malaria Tuberculosis Avian Flu Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
The Sociology of Health and Medicine The Impact of War on Health Four times as much is spent in the developing world on the military than is spent on health and education. Warfare has a measurable effect on mental health. People who live near war zones tend to suffer injuries, even if they are doing no fighting. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
The Sociology of Health and Medicine Globalization and Improvements in Health and Health Care Globalization has brought with it an array of development that should improve the quality of health throughout the world. There is a ready flow of new ideas associated with health and health care. Online medical journals flash around the world virtually instantaneously. Pharmaceuticals are becoming a global phenomenon. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.