Presentation on theme: "Teaching and learning Achieving quality for all Name: Event: Location, date 2014."— Presentation transcript:
Teaching and learning Achieving quality for all Name: Event: Location, date 2014
By 2015, many countries will still not have reached the EFA goals. There is a global learning crisis that is hitting the disadvantaged hardest. Good quality education can only be achieved with good quality teachers. Global education goals after 2015 must track progress of the marginalized. Post-2015 goals must include specific targets to finance education. Key messages
EFA goals will not be reached by 2015 Goal 2: Universal primary education 57 million children are out of school, half of whom live in conflict-affected countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, only 23% of poor, rural girls complete primary education. Goal 1: Early childhood care and education 1 in 4 children under 5 suffer from stunting, because of malnutrition. 50% of young children have access to pre-primary education, but only 17% in low income countries.
Goal 3: Youth and adult skills 69 million adolescents are out of school. In low income countries, only 37% of adolescents complete lower secondary education, and only 14% of the poorest. EFA goals will not be reached by 2015
The number of adolescents out of school declined slowly South and West Asia Sub-Saharan Africa Source: UIS database Millions Out-of-school children Out-of-school adolescents
EFA goals will not be reached by 2015 Goal 4: Adult literacy 774 million adults are illiterate, a decline of just 1% since Almost two-thirds of illiterate adults are women. Goal 5: Gender parity and equality There are fewer than 9 girls for every 10 boys: in 17 countries at primary level in 30 countries at secondary level.
By 2015, many countries will still not have reached the EFA goals Source: Bruneforth (2013). Percentage of countries projected to reach a benchmark for five EFA goals by 2015
Failing to reach the marginalized
Fall in aid threatens education in the poorest countries There is a financing gap of $26 billion per year Source: OECD-DAC (2013) Yet, aid to basic education fell by 6% between 2010 and 2011 Only US$1.9 billion of basic education aid was allocated to low income countries in Constant 2011 US$ billions
After 2015, financing targets should be set for countries to allocate: at least 6% of GNP on education; only 41 had reached this level by 2011 at least 20% of their budget on education; only 25 had reached this level by 2011 Financing targets should also apply to aid donors so that all funders are held to account for their promises. Targets must be set so no one is left behind due to lack of resources
Teaching and Learning: Achieving quality for all
250 million children are failing to learn the basics
Many children in the poorest countries are not learning the basics
The cost of the learning crisis
Poorer children learn less Children completing primary school and achieving minimum learning standards in mathematics, sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America Rich
One-quarter of those aged 15 to 24 in poor countries are unable to read a single sentence. Poor quality education leaves a legacy of illiteracy
Four strategies for providing the best teachers
Strategy 1: Recruit the best candidates Source: UIS (2013) Replacement for attrition 3.7 million Additional teachers 1.6 million Total primary teacher recruitment needed (millions) 0.7 Sub- Saharan Africa All other 60% 1.6 million additional teachers are needed to achieve universal primary education by 2015 On current trends, 29 countries will not even have filled their primary school teacher gap by million additional teachers will be needed to achieve universal lower secondary education by 2030
Policy-makers must attract the best candidates to teaching POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS: All trainees need, at a minimum, to have completed secondary education with good grades. There should be a good balance of male to female teachers. Teachers from a diverse range of backgrounds need to be attracted to the profession.
Pupil/trained teacher ratio Source: UIS database Barbados Dominica Qatar Kyrgyzstan Guyana Nicaragua Solomon Is. Belize Liberia Comoros Lesotho S.Tome/Principe Nigeria Equat. Guinea Togo Guinea Ghana Sudan (pre-secession) Sierra Leone Mozambique Cameroon Bangladesh Senegal Mali Benin Chad Ethiopia Guinea-Bissau C. A. R. Pupils per teacher Pupil/teacher ratio Strategy 2: Train all teachers well In one out of three countries, less than three-quarters of teachers are trained to national standards
Teachers must have good subject knowledge. Teachers must be equipped to meet the needs of those from disadvantaged backgrounds. Teachers need training in the use of assessment tools to detect and address learning difficulties early. Teacher trainees should have classroom experience and new teachers need support of mentors. Training must not stop once teachers are in the classroom. Teacher educators need training too. POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS Policy-makers must provide good quality pre-service and ongoing teacher education
Strategy 3: Allocate teachers to reach the disadvantaged 1. Urban bias 2. Ethnicity and language 3. Gender 4. Subjects The unequal allocation of teachers is affected by four main factors
Teachers should be provided with incentives to work in remote areas Local recruitment of teachers helps to ensure sufficient teachers are working in difficult areas POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS Policy-makers must allocate the best teachers where they are most needed
Strategy 4: Provide incentives to retain teachers Morocco Mexico Kenya Nigeria Estonia Hungary Mauritania U. R. Tanzania Poland Slovak Republic Ethiopia Eritrea Côte d'Ivoire Cape Verde Senegal Angola Benin Malawi Burkina Faso Cameroon Burundi S. Tome/Principe Congo Mali Niger Togo Gambia Sierra Leone Guinea Chad Rwanda Comoros Mozambique Uganda Zambia Madagascar D.R. Congo Guinea Bissau Liberia C. A. R. Daily salary of a primary school teacher, 2011 PPP US$ Source: Pole de Dakar database; OECD (2013b). In Liberia, where a family needs at least US$10 per day, teachers are paid only US$6 a day. Teachers in some poor countries are not paid enough to live on
Strategy 4: Provide incentives to retain teachers Many West African countries have a teaching force made up largely of people on short-term contracts Rwanda Malawi Comoros Burundi Côte d'Ivoire Gambia Uganda Guinea Bissau Madagascar Congo C.A.R Senegal Togo Burkina Faso Guinea Chad Benin Cameroon Niger Mali Share of total primary teacher workforce (%) Civil servantContract Source: Pôle de Dakar database.
Teachers should be paid enough to meet at least their basic needs, and offered the best possible working conditions. Teachers also need an attractive career path that rewards those who address diversity and support weak students. POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS : Provide incentives to retain the best teachers
Measures are needed to address teacher misconduct: to tackle gender-based violence to reduce teacher absenteeism to prevent teachers offering private tuition to their own students. Strengthen teacher governance
Support learning from the earliest years delivered at an appropriate pace Provide education in relevant languages Promote inclusion through the curriculum Provide accelerated second-chance programmes Identify and support low achievers with classroom assessment Provide appropriate curriculum & assessment strategies Policy-makers must ensure teachers are supported by strategies that: