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 Definition: › A collection of reform movements which varied in detail, but which all aimed to improve people’s lives and to overcome the human problems.

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Presentation on theme: " Definition: › A collection of reform movements which varied in detail, but which all aimed to improve people’s lives and to overcome the human problems."— Presentation transcript:

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2  Definition: › A collection of reform movements which varied in detail, but which all aimed to improve people’s lives and to overcome the human problems of a newly industrialized society, often through the intervention of government.  When? › 1880s – WWI  Origins › Problems resulting from rapid, mass- industrialization

3  Who were the reformers? › Often, middle & upper classes › Variety of causes › Often women, also men  Why? › Recognized unfairness and wanted justice for everyone › Wanted to keep their high standard of living › Feared revolution from the lower class  Goal: › Keep what’s good, reform what’s bad

4  Progressives sometimes seen as out of touch › Example: Progressives wanted child labor reform  Opposed by businesses (naturally)  But also opposed by poor families who relied on their children’s income  Progressives were willing to have more gov. interference in daily life › This created other opponents

5  Reasons: › Industrialization › Immigration › Americans leaving farms  1880 – 72% of population on farms  1910 – 54%

6  Pre-Civil War: › Not more than 3 or 4 mi. across › No buildings higher than 5 stories  Late 1800s: › Great expansion - People could live further away › Upward expansion too:  Skyscrapers  1 st in Chicago – 1885 – 535 ft. high

7  Noise  Traffic jams  Slums  Air pollution  Sanitation  Health problems

8  As wealthier families moved to the suburbs… (often white)  Poorer families had to remain in cities & live near work (often immigrants and American minorities) › Some in special housing units built by factory owners › Some in old apartments left by middle class, then converted into multi-family units

9  Small living spaces, run down  Green spaces, trees, replaced with tenements  Shared toilets, often outside  Few bathtubs  Disease traps › Rats › Poor ventilation › Close living quarters  Fire traps › Fire leapt from roof to roof of closely built tenement buildings

10  Urban neighborhoods in which specific ethnic groups lived  Often slum conditions  Provided comfort of familiar culture  Also served to set them apart from society  Often forced to live in ghettos by white elites › Threats if left › Covenant agreements  Refusal to sell real estate to minorities in better sections of town  Often applied to African Americans, Mexican Americans, Asian Amers. & Jews

11  Definition : › Unofficial organizations designed to keep a specific group of people in control of political power.  Leader = › Political Boss  Develop due to competing interests in city politics  Often supported by poorer immigrants

12  Machine would do “favors” for their constituents › Finding jobs › Providing medicine › Loans to pay rent › Etc.  In return, constituents owed their votes to the machine  Also had enforcers

13  Some more corrupt than others: › Tammany Hall  NYC  Boss Tweed  Amasses huge amounts of money through fraud  Brought down in part by Thomas Nast’s cartoons  Convicted 1873 – dies in jail  But Tammany Hall continues for another 50 yrs.

14  Usually very systematic 1. Focus on an area of concern 2. Seek out scientific data & expert testimony 3. Publicize results to put pressure on legislators

15  Make government more honest and responsive to citizens’ needs  Increase popular participation in the government  Create stronger role for federal government to protect the public interest and social welfare of citizens

16  Approaches: › Give publicity to issue to create change › Offering help through private organizations (philanthropy) › Pressure for government response to  Regulate business  Provide for the general welfare

17  Definition: › A group of journalists, authors, and other critics who investigated and exposed societal conditions during the Progressive Era.  This technique was originally used by opponents › Claimed writers were exaggerating conditions to sell papers. Often, they were not. This was NOT yellow journalism.

18 › Henry George  Progress & Poverty  Q: Why do advanced countries have more poverty?  A: Speculators buy & hold land, preventing its development.  Solution: Tax land itself, not improvements. This will make it less appealing to just buy & hold land.  Result: “Single-tax” clubs become popular › Edward Bellamy  Looking Backward  Man from 1887 is hypnotized & wakes up in 2000  America is transformed: no harsh working conditions, social class gaps, or political corruption  Solution: Gov. has nationalized trusts & organized industrial management to meet human needs above profits.  Result: “Nationalist” clubs become popular.

19  Example: › The Jungle – Upton Sinclair – expose of the meat packing industry  Meant to promote socialism, but…  Resulted in a new federal meat inspection program

20  Labor Movement – Slide 21  Municipal Reform – Slide 28  Socialism – Slide 31  Nativism – Slide 32  Prohibitionism – Slide 34  Purity Crusade – Slide 35  Charity Reform – Slide 36  Social Gospel – Slide 37  Settlement House movement – Slide 38

21  Concentrated on: › Hours › Wages › Working conditions

22  Limiting work hours › Unsuccessful for men  Supreme Ct. rules that it interferes w/ the rights of an individual to make contracts › Successful for women  Minimum wage › Unsuccessful for men › Successful for women & children in some states

23  Outlawing child labor › No one under 14 (generally) › 30 some states  Labor Departments Form › Help provide unbiased information › Help resolve disputes b/n labor & management › Positive effects  Rights gained (see above) › Negative effects  Contributes to women being seen as weaker, needing protection  Hurts case for women’s voting rights & equal work rights

24  March 25, 1911  NYC  Located on floors 8-10 of a ten story building  Fire regulations ignored › Too much equipment, blocking doors & hoses › Doors & fire escapes locked to prevent theft › One accessible fire escape unsound – collapses & people fall to their deaths › No fire drills

25  146 workers die – almost all immigrant women › Burned › Jumping to their deaths (from windows & down elevator shafts)  Results: › NY state investigates and eventually creates toughest labor code in nation

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28  Most reforms begin here › Easier to change › People were “on site” to keep up pressure  Political machines › Get rid of political bosses › Replace with a professional civil service  Hopes for honesty, competence, cost-efficiency  Mixed results › Often this meant that bosses had to work w/ reformers to keep power, so some real gains were made:  Registering voters  Improved city services  Established health codes  Enforced tenement codes

29  City control/ownership of utilities › Many cities heavily regulate or take over essential utilities  Cheaper prices for consumers  City improvements › Public baths › Parks › Work-relief programs  Esp. against 1893 depression › Playgrounds › Free kindergarten › Homeless shelters

30  Preservation of Open Spaces › John Muir › 1872 – Yellowstone › 1890 – Yosemite › 1905 – U.S. Forest Service created  200M+ acres of land set aside for:  Nation forests  Mineral reserves  Water projects

31  Def.: › An economic system in which the government controls major industry and wealth and distributes wealth relatively equally among the people.  Rewards are usually for time spent laboring, not type of labor done or value of labor done. Rewards are often on an “as-needed” basis.  Becomes popular on the municipal level, though never nationally › Still, its ideas were considered by many. › Wanted gov. to become socialist, but through proper channels, not revolution

32  Protection of Americans › “True” Americans › (White Americans)  Limiting immigration  American Protective Association: › Teach only American culture & Eng. lang. in schools › Tighter controls on citizenship › Tighter controls on the employment of aliens

33  Immigration Restriction League › Upper class, organized by Harvard grads › Wanted to exclude “unfit” immigrants through literacy tests › Main targets: “new immigrants” from S & E Europe  Culture differed significantly from League members

34  The Prohibition Party (1869)  The Women’s Christian Temperance Union (1874)  The Anti-Saloon League (1893)  Why? To prevent: › Immorality › Personal tragedies › Violence › Poverty

35  Anti: › Drugs › Gambling › Prostitution › Political machine  1873 – the Comstock Law › Illegal to send obscene material through U.S. mail  Included information on preventing unwanted pregnancies  Greatly slows the spread of birth control info. for decades

36  Direct aid to the poor  Often distinguished between the “worthy” poor & others  Often interfered & tried to change immigrants’ way of life as well as offering help. › Childrearing › Dress › Cooking › Sometimes welcomed, sometimes not

37  Apply the gospel to the world around you  Led many religious institutions to aid in social welfare & reform  Often created charity organizations

38  Hull House – 1889 – Chicago › Jane Addams & Ellen Gates Starr › Over a few decades, provides a central location for: Cultural events Recreation programs  Displaying ethnic crafts Employment & legal aid  Taking classes Health clinics Child-care  and more

39  Just giving money to social problems/poor does not work  Need to live among them to find out true needs, then provide help  By 1910, more than 400 exist nation-wide › Privately run, often college-graduated women, willing to work for low wages

40  Civil rights  Tenant & migrant farmers  Nonunionized workers  Immigrants (some actively supported restrictions & literacy tests)  Imperialism (favored civilizing other nations)

41  August, 1914 – war begins in Europe  Calls to prepare for war begin  Soon overshadow calls for reform  By the end of 1916, all causes but suffrage die out

42  Struggle since Seneca Falls (1848)  Goals: › Main: the vote › Also: changing the view of women  Proper sphere = solely in the home  Weaker

43  Opposition: › Two main arguments:  Women were powerful enough without the vote  Confusing the spheres of man & woman › Liquor industry also opposes women’s suffrage, not due to a good argument, but because…  They fear women will quickly vote for prohibition

44  NAWSA (National American Woman Suffrage Association) › Wants national amendment, but also focused on individual states › Refocuses on national goal, led by Carrie Chapman Catt › 2M members by 1917 – largest voluntary organization in the country

45  CU (Congressional Union) › Only focus is national amendment › Led by Alice Paul  Formerly part of NAWSA, then kicked out › Aggressive protests › Often went to jail  Hunger strikes  Force fed › After protests & jail, CU members condemned by NAWSA!  The way they were treated is not condemned!

46  Changes in 1917 › US enters WWI  Women heavily involved  Volunteering  Ambulance corps  Taking over men’s work  So, talk of separate spheres is even more ridiculous › Congress passes Prohibition (18 th Amend)  So, liquor lobby doesn’t protest women’s suffrage anymore

47  1918 – Congress passes the suffrage amendment proposal › Due to:  Political pressure  Many states had independently already granted suffrage  Protests by NAWSA & CU  Embarrassment over treatment of CU members in jail  1920 – Ratified › 19 th Amendment › Tennessee is the 36 th state (last one needed) to ratify › Last major battle of the Progressive Era


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