Presentation on theme: "Beginning the world as we know it.. Cracking – 213-220 Fast Track – 286-291, 303-304 Text – 599-618 Bonus- How did war invent the pencil? Text."— Presentation transcript:
Beginning the world as we know it.
Cracking – 213-220 Fast Track – 286-291, 303-304 Text – 599-618 Bonus- How did war invent the pencil? Text page 576
Before the IR, there were 3 sources of power: Muscle, wind, water Each had + and - : Muscle: works anywhere, but expensive and tires easily Wind: free, but undependable Water: constant output, but must be on a river “If only we could combine the advantages and minimize the costs, think of how much work we could get done…”
The first artificially powered engine Could run 24hr/d Useable anywhere Needed a constant supply of fuel (usually coal) Credited to James Watt, 1775 First used in mining, then textiles, transportation Kicks off the Industrial Revolution Biggest change for humans since the Agricultural Rev
18001 ton of coal50, 000 miners 185030 tons200, 000 miners 1880300 million tons500, 000 miners 1914250 million tons1, 200, 000 miners Coal Mining in Britain: 1800-1914
Social People moving country to city, farm to factory Rich richer, poor poorer Expanded middle class Economic Production moves from small shops to factories More products at lower prices Environmental Increased mining, deforestation, air pollution (new) Technological Automated machines, rapid transportation and communication
Factory Production ) Concentrates production in one place [materials, labor]. ) Located near sources of power [rather than labor or markets]. ) Owning requires a lot of capital investment [factory, machines, etc]
Textile Factory Workers in England 1813 2400 looms 150, 000 workers 1833 85, 000 looms 200, 000 workers 1850224, 000 looms>1 million workers
The Factory System × Rigid schedule, 12-14 hour day. × Dangerous conditions. × Mind-numbing monotony.