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CHOICE AND CHANGE The Psychology of Personal Growth and Interpersonal Relationships, 7 th ed. by April O’Connell, Vincent O’Connell, and Lois-Ann Kuntz Chapter 4 PARENTING BABIES & YOUNG CHILDREN ISBN : 0131891707 Copyright © by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved PowerPoint Slide Set, Version 1.0 by April O’Connell and Lois-Ann Kuntz for
CHAPTER 4 PARENTING BABIES AND YOUNG CHILDREN: From Conception to Preschool By the end of this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Recognize the evidence for both sides of the nature-nurture controversy 2. Identify the penetrance factors that affect the child-in-the-womb 3. Relate gentle birthing and strong mother-baby bonding to social/emotional development 4. Describe healthy nurturing of the infant 5. Describe freeplay and cooperative play for positive parenting 6. Describe children’s literature as moral/ethical instruction 7. Relate art play to preparation for school 8. Recognize three types of parenting and later adjustment to school Copyright © by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
The child’s personality is determined by: Both genetics and environment (nature/nurture controversy). Genetic studies: concordance rate of relatives, adoption and twin studies: 50% to 75% of personality traits Environmental factors include –Contagious diseases –Penetrance factors including nicotine, alcohol, infectious diseases, over- the counter medications, prescription drugs, and toxic ingredients in our environment –Unwanted children have lower self-esteem, poorer school achievement, and poorer interpersonal relationships Birthing procedures Maternal Stress Parenting of the child NATURE AND NURTURE Copyright © by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Welcoming the “new immigrant” to our world includes: Holding and comforting infants when they cry, especially the first six months –It is not spoiling them. They actually cry less than infants not so comforted Good nurturing of the infant through the language of the five senses –Using the sense of touch when holding the child, bathing the child, changing the baby’s diapers, and rocking the child –Using the visual and taste senses while nursing –Using the visual sense when playing games with the child, such as “peek-a-boo” –Using the hearing sense while singing lullabies, using “motherese” language or simply talking out loud while doing chores Most important: Just have fun with your Baby! HEALTHY NURTURING OF THE INFANT Copyright © by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
▪Play is not just “children having fun” but valuable for: –Developing physical dexterity and balance –Fostering Erikson’s Stage 2 life task of “initiative” –Enhancing perceptual skills –Catharsizing anxieties and concerns, some of which they cannot verbalize –Learning to obey simple rules –Moral/ethical standards by cooperating with others ▪There are many types of play including: Free out-of-doors play Rough-and-tumble play Indoor “quiet” play with toys Free art play which fosters reading readiness for school and creative imagination PLAY AS THE SERIOUS BUSINESS OF CHILDHOOD Copyright © by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Reading to children fosters cognitive and emotional growth: Fairytales represent the child’s family –The child is the prince or princess –The king is the child’s father –The good queen is the child’s mother –The wicked stepmother is mother when she disciplines the child or does not give in to the child’s demands It is moral/ethical instruction in a language the child can understand –The good win out in the end and the wicked are punished. –It gives the child hope that the “Beast Within” (which Freud called the Id) would be vanquished (socialized) It is excellent preparation for school –It leads to better academic skills in the primary grades –Children learn to like the stories books provide –Some children even learn to read before they enter school THE VALUE OF CHILDREN’S LITERATURE Copyright © by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Children divide mothers into “Good Mommie” who is nice and gives them whatever they want, and “Evil Stepmother” who disciplines or does not give into their demands. If the child has older sisters, they become the stepsisters who get to do things (like go to the ball) which she is not allowed allowed to do. Her father is the “Good King” who doesn’t know how cruelly she is being treated. “Good Mommie” died when she was born and lives in Heaven. Alas! Now she has no one to look out for her. THE FAIRYTALE WORLD OF CHILDREN The Story of Cinderella Copyright © by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Positive parenting for the pre-school child - Free play and cooperative play; - Art play as therapeutic for children’s concerns and anxieties - Children’s literature as moral/ethical instruction in a language the child can understand; Three types of parenting and adjustment to school; The advantage of psychological androgyny; Establishing simple rules for indoors and outdoors. Baumrind and her research team categorized parenting styles as: Authoritarian: The traditional style of parenting based on authority and power Permissive: Adapted from counseling style and based on the child’s self-discovery of the world Authoritative: Adapted from learning models and based on role modeling and. reinforcing (rewarding) desirable behavior Findings: What the research team, discovered was that there were. distinct differences in the children’s later adjustment to school. THREE PARENTING STYLES and ADJUSTMENT TO SCHOOL Copyright © by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Positive parenting for the pre-school child - Free play and cooperative play; - Art play as therapeutic for children’s concerns and anxieties - Children’s literature as moral/ethical instruction in a language the child can understand; Three types of parenting and adjustment to school; The advantage of psychological androgyny; Establishing simple rules for indoors and outdoors. Authoritarian style: Traditional style of parenting based on authority and power Adults believe “Parents know best” and should direct their children's’ lives Adults provide children with rules how to behave If the rules are not obeyed, punishment follows (although not necessarily physical punishment) The research team called this parenting style an “adult-centered” home Adaptation to school Children adapted to school rules very quickly since they were used to rules Children were aggressive with other children and avoided teacher Children had difficulty in working cooperatively with other children both on the playground and in class If treated kindly, however, most of these children learned to work and play less aggressively and more cooperatively AUTHORITARIAN PARENTING & ADJUSTMENT TO SCHOOL Copyright © by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Permissive style: Adapted from the counseling approach Adapted from counseling style, parents want the children to discover the world for themselves The parents believe that in this way, the children will get in touch with their centers-of-growth, and be more perceptive and creative The children are allowed to direct their own lives, such as when they go to bed The research team called this style of parenting, a “child-centered” home Adaptation to School: These children seemed lost in their new environment. They had difficulty sharing attention with 20 to 30 other children. They were less able to play cooperatively and do independent seat work. They needed much individual attention from their teacher Of all three groups, they had the - poorest adaptation to the new school environment PERMISSIVE PARENTING & ADJUSTMENT TO SCHOOL Copyright © by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
Positive parenting for the pre-school child - Free play and cooperative play; - Art play as therapeutic for children’s concerns and anxieties - Children’s literature as moral/ethical instruction in a language the child can understand; Three types of parenting and adjustment to school; The advantage of psychological androgyny; Establishing simple rules for indoors and outdoors. Authoritative style: Adapted from psychological learning models The parents reward the desirable behavior through positive comments, smiles, and other secondary reinforcers Parents let their children know they appreciate good behavior and kindness to others Instead of rules and regulations, parents use themselves as role models If the child continues to misbehavior, the parent removes the object that the child is misusing or removes the child from reinforcing environment until the undesirable behavior is extinguished The research team called it a “family-centered” home Adaptation to School:. Children from these homes related well to both adults and other children They focused their attention on their independent seat work and worked cooperatively in groups Because they felt at home in the classroom, they enjoyed learning and earned higher grades All in all, they had the best adaptation to school AUTHORITATIVE PARENTING & ADJUSTMENT TO SCHOOL Copyright © by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
No hard and fast rules but here are some tips and guidelines: Remember each child is a different individual –You don’t have to treat them equally—treat them according to their needs –Good parenting means being firm but avoid physical punishments whenever possible –There will be times when all three parenting styles may be used Allow psychological androgyny –Don’t insist on specific gender roles Boys do only this and girls do only that! –Children who are allowed to investigate all interests develop higher intelligence Do teach a few indoor and out-of-door rules –Keep the rules simple enough to be followed –Complying with house rules makes school easier –Make visiting the children’s library a weekly event –If you make a mistake (accuse child unjustly), - just apologize, children are wonderfully forgiving. SO WHAT IS THE RIGHT WAY TO RAISE CHILDREN? Copyright © by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
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