9Why did this increase occur? Agricultural Revolution – more stable food supply, less famines.Industrial and Scientific Revolutions – better machinery developed for agriculture. Better farming techniques developed. Advances were made in healthcare and medicines which saved more peoples lives.
10Population GrowthToday, approximately 132 million people are born each year, while only 53 million people are dying each year. Therefore the population of the world is continuing to grow.The population of countries in Africa and Asia are increasing rapidly, while those in Europe, America, and Japan are increasing slowly.In some countries such as Germany the population is actually decreasing.
11Almost all of the increase in population is taking place in the poorer countries of the south.
14The Population CycleThe population of all countries goes through a population cycle.There are 5 stages in the population cycle.Countries move through the different stages of the cycle as a result of their social and economic development.
16The Population Cycle – Stages 1-5 Stage 1: High birth rate, high death rate. Low population growth due to famine, disease, and natural disasters.Stage 2: The economy improves. Money is spent on healthcare and clean water. Birth rate stays high, death rate drops a lot. Population increases.Stage 3: Social and economic development continues. People start having less children as most children survive to adulthood.Stage 4: The country is now wealthy. Family planning is widespread. Low birth rate and death rate. Small population growth.Stage 5: People have very few children. The death rate is higher than the birth rate. The population starts to decline.
17Factors Affecting Population Change Food SupplyIncreased food supply allows the population to grow. When people have enough food they are likely to be healthy.Improved TechnologyFarming has improved as a result of better machines, the use of fertilizers, and irrigation practices. This has boosted food supply allowing the population to grow.HealthImproved access to safe drinking water decreases diseases such as cholera, typhoid. Improved vaccinations prevent people getting ill allowing them to live longer.
18Factors Affecting Population Change WarMillions of people have been killed in wars over the years. During war agriculture, water supplies, and health services are destroyed which also leads to increased death rates.The Status of WomenIn wealthy countries women have a high status in society. They have high levels of education and many choose to have careers rather than work in the home. They tend to have less children. In poorer countries many women stay at home and have large families.EducationEducation gives people control of their lives, especially women. Educated women plan the size of their families. They learn about good diet, healthcare, and hygiene practices. This reduces illnesses and allows children to grow up healthy.
19Factors Affecting Population Change The Status of WomenWhen women are educated and involved in careers outside the home they have less children.This greatly reduces the population growth of a country.
203 Children FamiliesAfter 3 generations there are 27 children being born.2 Children FamiliesAfter 3 generations there are only 8 children being born.
21Factors Affecting Population Change Education levels – Female Literacy
22Future Population Growth??? If the world’s population continues to increase as it has over the past 50 years, there will be more than 11 Billion people by the year 2040.However, people in many countries are starting to have fewer children.Access to clean water, vaccinations, and education are resulting in mothers have smaller families because all of their children are living healthy lives and surviving to adulthood.Therefore, population growth should fall in the coming years.
24Population Pyramid - Germany What % of Germany’s population is in the age group years?Which age group makes up the greatest % of Germany’s population?There are more women aged years in Germany than men. True or False?Explain one reason why a small % of Germany’s population is in the age group 0-4 years.
25Population Pyramid - Ireland There are more females than males aged years in Ireland. True or False?Less than 8% of Ireland’s population is in the age group 0-4 years. True or False?More than 12% of Ireland’s population is in the age group years. True or False?
26Population Pyramid - Brazil Which age group makes up the largest % of Brazil’s population?More than 6% of Brazil’s population is made up of women aged years. True or False?More than 4% of Brazil’s population is in the age group years. True or False.Calculate the % of Brazil’s population aged years.
27Are Population Pyramids Useful? Population pyramids show the % of males and females in the different age groups.They allow governments to plan things like where to build schools, hospitals, and other healthcare facilities.They also allow government to forecast tax and pension needs.
28Population Growth – Is it Good or Bad? The rapid population growth since 1800, and especially since 1950 has occurred because people are living longer, healthier lives. Less children are dying in the poorer countries because they have more access to food, medicines, and clean water than in the past.However, this rapid population growth is causing huge problems on our planet. Many people now agree that there are too many people on the planet and that we should try to stop the population from increasing further.More people on the planet means more environmental damage such as deforestation, desertification, and species extinction. It is also contributing to the problem of global warming.
29Population Distribution Population distribution refers to how people are spread throughout the world. Population distribution is very uneven.People do not like to live in places that are too hot, too cold, too wet, or too dry.Population densities are very low in these types of areas.
31Population DensityPopulation density refers to the average number of people living in a square kilometre.Calculate the population density of the;- Complete grid.- Right half of the grid.- Left half of the grid.Each grid is 1 km². The number is the number of people living in each grid.43141759111210
33Population Change in the West of Ireland The population density of the west of Ireland has changed dramatically in the past 200 years.Before the Famine in the 1840’s the population rose sharply.During the Famine, many people died or emigrated to the UK or the US.Emigration continued after the Famine and so the population of the west declined for more than 100 years.
34Population Trends – Co. Clare In which year did the population of Co. Clare reach its highest level?In which year did the population of Co. Clare reach its lowest level?Explain 2 reasons why the population of Co. Clare went down.Calculate the difference between the population in 1821 and 2002.Explain why the population has increased since 1966 – 2002.
35Population Change: Clifden Rural District and Galway What has happened to the population of Clifden rural district since 1911?What has happened to the population of Galway since 1911?Explain two reasons why these changes have taken place.Suggest one thing that the government could do to stop this pattern from continuing.
36Population Density - Dublin The Dublin region has a high population density.Almost 1/3 of Ireland’s population live in the Dublin region.There are a number of reasons for this.Dublin is where the government of Ireland sits.It is Ireland’s main port.It is Ireland’s main transport focus. (Air, Sea, Rail, Roads).It is Ireland’s most important educational, cultural, and commercial centre.Dublin is therefore a zone of attraction for migrants, and foreigndirect investment.
38Population Density in Dublin: Change over time. Up until the 1960’s, most people in the Dublin region lived in the city.However, since then many people have moved out of the city to live in the suburbs.The suburbs developed around villages in West Dublin like Tallaght, Lucan, Blanchardstown, and Clondalkin.They also developed along the coast of North Co. Dublin.
41Population Density in Dublin: Change over time. Much of the growth in Dublin’s population has occurred in west Dublin.Using evidence from the map, suggest 3 reasons for this._____________________
42Population Density in Brazil Brazil is a large country and its population is still increasing quickly.However, the population is unevenly distributed.Most people live along the coast. The population density is high.Fewer people live inland. The population density is low.
43Population Density in Sweden Like Brazil, Sweden’s population is unevenly distributed.Most of the people live in the south of Sweden.Fewer people live in the north of Sweden.Why do you think this is?
44Population Density in Sweden The climate is warmer in the south.There is better farmland in the south.There are many mineral resources which are used to make steel products in the cities of the south.There are good ports in the south which are important transport links to European markets.
45Low Population Density Areas of low population density have few people living in them.In Ireland they are usually isolated rural areas or islands.Outward migration from these areas is leading to a decrease in the population.Young people leave these areas when they go to university or for work. They go to the big cities like Dublin, Cork, and Galway.This can lead to many problems such as;- Low marriage rates – few young people remain to start families.- Abandoning farmland – young people don’t want to work on the farm.- Economic isolation – Businesses won’t set up there because there are few workers or customers.
46The pull of the Leinster Region What has happened to the population of Leinster since 1926?What has happened to the population of Connacht and Ulster since 1926?Why do you think this is happening?
47High Salaries in the Dublin Region Using evidence from the graph above, explain why people are attracted to the Dublin region.
48Low Population Density – West Clare Using evidence from the graph explain one reason why the population of this West Clare parish is declining.Suggest one reason why fewer children are being born in the parish today.Suggest one thing the Irish government could do to try to reverse this situation.
50Low Population Density - Mali Mali is one of the world’s poorest countries. It has a low population density.Mali has a lack of rainfall and so it suffers from drought. This causes animals to die and crops to fail.Part of Mali is covered by the Sahara Desert, and the desert is getting bigger each year. This is called Desertification.The small population is spread throughout this huge country. Therefore, in this poor country it is difficult to make schools and health centres, and adequate roads for the people.
51Mali – Some Facts Population – 11 million Life Expectancy – 42 years Infant Mortality – 120 per 1000 (Ireland = 6)Population with clean water – 65%School Age Children – 42%Adult Literacy – Men = 49%Women = 34%
52High Population Density - Calcutta Calcutta is a city in India. It is one of the world’s largest cities. More than 13 million people live there. It has many problems.Problems in CalcuttaRapid Population Growth – High birth rate, many rural migrants due to poverty, famine, flooding, and violence in the countryside.Shortage of Clean Water – The rise in population makes it difficult to provide clean water to everyone. People in the shanty towns are not connected to the water supply.Overcrowding – More than 32,000 people / km². Many people live on footpaths, under bridges and on derelict sites.
60High Population Density – Hong Kong There are about 7 million people living in Hong Kong. However, there is much less poverty compared to Calcutta.Problems in Hong KongRefugees – Millions of migrants came from mainland China and Vietnam.Pollution – Hong Kong is very polluted. Traffic congestion and pollution from factories has polluted the air and the sea.Lack of Space – Most people live in huge high rise flats and apartments. Polders have been developed to create new industrial spaces.Can you remember what a Polder is?Which European country has also created Polders?What similarities exist between Hong Kong and this European country?
66Revision Questions - Population Describe what happened to world population between 1700 and 1900.Describe what happened to world population between 1900 and 2000.Why was there an increase in population between 1700 and 1900?Why was there a rapid increase in population between 1900 and 2000?Why has most of the population increase since 1950 occurred in developing countries?Draw and label a diagram of the Population Cycle.List three pieces of information shown on your diagram.List the 5 stages shown on your diagram.Explain what is happening to the population in each stage of the cycle and why it is happening.List 6 factors that can affect population change.Explain in detail how any two of these factors affects population change.Explain 3 differences between the population pyramids of Germany and Brazil.Explain in detail why the shape of Brazil’s population pyramid is different to Germany’s population pyramid.List 3 specific pieces of information shown on the population pyramid of Ireland.Explain two ways that compiling population pyramids are useful to governments.
67Revision Questions - Population Dublin is a Primate city with a high population density. Explain why.Explain 3 reasons why Dublin is growing in a westward direction.Name one region in Ireland where low population density is a problem. Explain why the region has a low population density and some problems it experiences as a result.Name one European country you have studied with an uneven population distribution. Explain in detail how and why the population is distributed.Name one non-European country you have studied with an uneven population distribution. Explain in detail how and why the population is distributed.Name one country you have studied with a low population density. Explain two problems low population density can cause.Name one city you have studied with a high population density. Explain two problems high population density can cause.Explain the push factors which forced Irish people to emigrate from Ireland and the pull factors that attracted them to the UK and the USA.