Presentation on theme: "Unit 8 Globalization’s Dual Power. Teaching procedures: Ⅰ Warm-up questions Ⅱ Background Ⅲ Word study Ⅳ General understanding of the text Ⅴ Detailed study."— Presentation transcript:
Unit 8 Globalization’s Dual Power
Teaching procedures: Ⅰ Warm-up questions Ⅱ Background Ⅲ Word study Ⅳ General understanding of the text Ⅴ Detailed study of the text Ⅵ Questions for discussion Ⅶ Language focus Ⅷ Exercises
1. Please compare the society nowadays with the one ten years ago. What have remained unchanged and what have been changed? 2. In general, could you list some examples which show the positive aspects of globalization? 3. Please list some examples which show the negative effects of globalization? Ⅰ Warming-up questions
Ⅱ Background Information The world is becoming more and more integrated and it is becoming a small global village. Globalization, which is a trendy word today, is not just an irresistible trend. It is already a fact. Actually, in its broadest sense, globalization started along time ago, dating back to the early caravans across the Sahara Desert and along the Silk Road, the trade around the Mediterranean or in the wake of the Crusaders, or across the Atlantic after Columbus discovered America. The process reached its first peak in the end of the 19th century, and although it was temporarily suspended by wide spread protectionism which lead to the two world wars in the first half of the 20th century, the tide returned in the latter half with more tranquil international relations supported by the United Nations, GATT, the World Bank and IMF. The pace of international economic integration accelerated in the 1980s and 1990s, especially after the Cold War ended.
Many political barriers that hampered international trade were reduced or removed, and great technological development facilitated easy transportation and communication. The most dramatic example of this new round of globalization is no doubt the opening-up of China. But China is not the only country caught up in this process. Today even the most secluded and isolated countries are taking their cautious steps in this direction. However, this is only one side of the story. There also exists the opposite tendency, the tendency of protectionism, regionalism, separatism, anti- globalization. The reason for this is simple. As the author puts it, globalization is a double-edged sword. It cuts both ways. On the other hand, it can bring new products and services; new investment and markets; new technologies and management skills and generally higher living standards.
But it can also bring more debt, more instability, a greater gap between the rich and the poor, far worse environmental degradation, and the loss of national and cultural identity. In spite of all the promises of a win-win situation, in this game, nations are not equally positioned. The do not have a level playground. Therefore, there are bound be to be winners and losers. Peopel in many developing countries are afraid that they stand to lose their won independence. They suspect that globalization is just another name for Americanization. They feel that they are being marginalized rather than integrated. No wonder there has been an increasingly mass protest against globalization around the world in recent years.
This does not mean that globalization is completely wrong. It simply means that it is more complicated than we thought. It means that new problems have to be looked into and properly resolved. Globalization probably will eventually prevail. But it will have to be a more equitable, more humane, more universally beneficial kind of globalization. In this essay written at the edge of the twenty-first century, the author draws our attention to the dual character of this trend and urges people to deal with the new problems.
China’s 15-year-log unremitting efforts to join the WTO show that we have made our choice. We have decided, after weighing the pros and cons carefully, that we cannot afford to be left out of this trend, the trend that we decided to embrace in Our achievements since that time have proved the wisdom of this policy. However, we must not forget there is the other side. Our real challenges are still ahead when globalization requires big changes in ideas, attitudes, practices, policies ad institutional structures. It is for this reason that we believe that as students we ought to know about globalization in all its subtlety and complexity. We should think how we, as individuals, can adjust our selves to the challenges of a more open country and avail ourselves of the new opportunities.
1. abrupt adj. 1. sudden and unexpected 意外的, 突然的, 出其不意的 an abrupt end [change] 突然的结局 [ 变化 ] come to an abrupt stop 突然停止 adj.2.(a) (of speech, etc.) not smooth; disconnected; disjointed( 指言 语等）不流畅的，不连贯的，支离的 short abrupt sentences 短小而不连贯的句子 （ b ） (of behaviour)rough; curt 粗鲁的, 唐突的 in an abrupt manner 莽撞地, 粗鲁地 3. adj.(of a slope)very steep 陡峭的 ;
2. alien n. 1. (fml or law) person who is not a naturalized citizen of the country in which he is living 外侨；侨民；外国人 2. being from another world adj. 1(a) foreign: an alien land 外国 （ b ） unfamiliar; strange 不熟悉的；陌生的 an alien environment alien customs 2. (pred) ～ to sth/sb: contrary to sth Such principles are alien to our religion. Cruelty are alien to her nature/her.
alienate v. 1. ～ sb (from sb/sth): cause sb to become unfriendly or indifferent; estrange sb/sth The president’s policy alienated many of his followers. Many students feel alienated from society. 2. (law) transfer the owership of (property) from one person to another. 转让（财产）所有权，让渡
3. antidote n. ～ (against/for/to sthh)1. substance that acts against the effects of a poison or disease 解毒药；解毒剂： an antidote against snake-bites,malaria, food poison 2. anything that counteracts sth unpleaseant 抵消不愉快 事物的任何事 The holiday was a marvellous antidote to the pressures of office work. Hard work is the best antidote to mischief.
4. boom n. sudden increase(in population, trade, etc.) period of prosperity （人口、贸易等）突然增加；繁荣昌盛时 期 The oil market is enjoying a boom. a boom year v. have a period of rapid economic growth 处于经济迅 速发展时期 Business is booming. the boom of guns 枪炮的隆隆声 waves booming on the shores 撞击海岸发出隆隆声的海 浪
5. bust (infml) 1. break(sth); smash 打破，打碎 e.g. I dropped my camera on the pavement and bust it. 2. bust sth/sb (for sth): ( of a police) raid ( a house) or arrest sb e.g. Mickey has been busted for drugs. 3. reduce (sb) to a lower military rank; demote e.g. He was busted ( to corporal) for being absent without leave. 他因擅离职守 而被将为（下士）。 4. (phr v) bust up(esp of a married couple) quarrel and separate e.g. They bust up after five years of marriage. bust sth up: cause sth to end; disrupt sth bust up a meeting 使会议中止 It was his drinking that busted up their marriage. bust adj. (pred.) My watch is bust. The company went bust.
6.glut v. 1. glut sth(with sth): supply sth with much more than is needed 超量供应某事物 e.g. glut the market with cheap apples from abroad 2. glut oneself (with/on sth) fill oneself with rich food, on cream buns (fig) glutted with pleasures 纵情享乐 n. a glut of fruit/talent glutton: 1. person who eats too much; 2. person always ready for more ( of sth difficult or unpleasant) 官员承受更 多困难、不快的事物的人 a glutton for punishiment/hard work 对惩罚、艰苦的工作 无所畏惧的人
7. prevail v. 1. prevail (among/in sth/sb): exist or happen generally; be widespread e.g. The use of horses for ploughing still prevails among the poorer farmers. 2. prevail (against/over sb/sth) (fml) fight successfully (against sb/sth): defeat Justice will prevail against evil. The native population prevailed over the invaders. 3. (phr v) prevail on sb to do sth(fml): persuade sb to do sth May I prevail on you to make a speech after dinner? Prevailing adj. (attrib) (a) most usual or widespread The prevailing customs, fashions, style, etc. (b) (of a wind) that blows in an area most frequently Prevalent adj. (fml) prevalent (among/ in sth/sb): existing or happening genreally; widespread 普遍存在的；流行的 The prevalent opinion is in favor of reform. Is malaria still prevalent among the population?
8. prone adj. 1. ( of a person or his position) lying flat, esp face downwards 向下的, 俯伏的 lying prone 俯卧的 in a prone position 成俯卧姿势 2. （ a ） (pred) prone to sth/to do sth: liable to sth or likely to do sth; inclined to do sth 倾向 [ 于 …] 的, 有 [… 之 ] 倾向的 [to](( 通常指 不好的事 )) He is prone to idleness [superstition]. 他好偷懒 [ 迷信 ] 。 I‘m prone to migraines. 我常患偏头痛。 He is prone to get angry. 他动辄发怒。 (b)(in compounds) liable or susceptible to sth specified(esp sth undesirable) The child is rather accident-prone. Strike-prone industries
9. relentless adj. 1. not relenting; strict or harsh 不留情的；严格的；苛刻的 be relentless in punishing corrupt officials 2. not ceasing; constant relentless pursuit, questioning, criticismthe relentless pressure of his life as a leader v. relent 1. decide to be less strict, determined or harshAfterwards she relented and let the children stay up to watch TV. The police will not relent in the fight against crime. 2. ( of the speed or rate of doing sth,ect) become less intense The pressure on us to finish the task will not relent. 3. (of bad weather)improve The rain relented just long enough for me to go shopping.
10. relieve vt.1. lessen or remove (pain, distress, anxiety, etc.) 减轻或解除（痛苦、困 苦、忧虑等） She felt relieved. 她感觉轻快了。 This remedy will relieve the pain. 这种治疗将会减轻痛苦。 2. provide aid or assistance for (people in need, a disaster area, etc.) 解救； 援助 He devoted himself to relieving the poor. 他献身于救济穷人。 Relieve famine in Africa The bypass relieves traffic jams in our city centre. 3.release(sb)from a duty or task by taking his place or (finding sb else to do so) 换班；接替 You should be relieved at noon. 你中午换班。 relieve oneself(euphe) 解小便或大便 relieve one’s feelings 发泄某人的感情 relieve sb of sth(a) 解除某人的负担；（ b ）替某人拿 （ c) 抢劫或盗取某人 某物 n. relief
1. Theme of the Text Globalization is a double-edged sword: a promise to help everyone and a peril to hurt everyone. Ⅳ General Understanding of the text
2. Structure of the Text Part 1 (Paras. 1—2 ) about: The author points out the topic—globalization is a double-edged sword and what it will bring to the one involved. Part 2 (Paras.3—34 ) about: The author discusses the topic in detail by exemplification and finds it hard to decide. We can only wait and see. It can be subdivided into three parts: Paras3-17: the acceleration of globalization and the benefits it has brought about Paras 18-31: two problems caused by globalization. Paras 32-34: Globalization can go on or implode. (conclusion) Ⅳ General Understanding of the text
Questions: 1. Why does the writer say that globalization is a double-edged sword, or has dual power? 2. What is the daunting question the author visualizes for the 21st century? 3. Why is it daunting? Ⅴ Detailed study of the text
1. At the edge of a new century, globalization is a double-edged sword: a powerful vehicle that raises economic growth, spreads new technology and raises living standards in rich and poor countries alike, but also an immensely controversial process that assaults national sovereignty; erodes local culture and tradition and threatens economic and social instability. ( a double-edged sword: a thing having both positive and negative effects Para. 1
a double bed 双人床 double-folded eyelid 双眼皮 a double room in a hotel 旅馆的双人房间 double chin 双下巴 double figures 双位数（从 10 到 99 ） dual citizenship (nationality) 双重国籍, dual power 双重威力 a duplex apartment 复式公寓 bilateral trade 双边贸易 duplicate keys to the front door 两把完全一样的正门钥匙 twin-engined plane 双引擎飞机 two-way traffic 双向交通 even numbers 双数，偶数（ odd numbers 奇数） mutual agreement 双方协定 twofold task 双重任务 Para. 1
vehicle ： means by which thought, feeling, etc. can be expressed. Art may be used as a vehicle for the actress’s talents. The play was an excellent vehicle for the actress’s talents. alike: adv. in the same way treat everybody alike 一视同仁 The climate here is always hot, summer and winter alike. Para. 1
2. A daunting question of the 21st century is whether nations will control this great upheaval or whether it will come to control them. daunting: discouraging; disheartening The prospect of seeing his mother-in-law is daunting. dauntless: not easily discouraged or frightened dauntless bravery 英勇绝伦 nothing daunted: not at all discouraged upheaval:a great change, esp. causing or involving much difficulty, activity or trouble Para. 2
Questions 1. The author said that after WWII, the market growth re- accelerated, driven by political pressures and better technology. What does he mean? What are the political pressures? 2. Is politics the only driving force of this process? What are some of the most important technological developments since WWII that favor more global commerce and help to turn the world into a global village? 3. Would you say that globalization is the game of the economic powers? What is the general attitude of the poorer countries? Why are some poorer countries so anxious to join the WTO? Part two
3. In some respects, globalization is merely a trendy word for an old process. respects: particular aspects or details in respect of sth:(fml or commerce) as regards sth; with special reference to sth The book is admirable in respect of style. Prices rise in respect of gas and water costs. with respect to sth: (fml or commerce) concerning sth This is true with respect to English but not to French. trendy ： of the latest fad or fashion To some extent, globalization is not new. The world has always been in the process of market expansion, which is referred to as “globalization”— a fashionable term used only recently. Para. 3
The Cold War, from the late 1940s through the 1980s, caused the United States to champion trade liberalization and economic growth as a way of combating communism. The Cold War was a state of extreme hostility between countries with opposing political systems existing after the Second World War to the demise of the Soviet Union—the “socialist camp” headed by the Soviet Union and the “free world” headed by the United States, which expressed itself not through shooting wars, but through fierce economic competition, as well as through political and military pressure and threats. During the Cold War, the United States enthusiastically fought for trade liberalization partly in order to combat communism. champion: to support or defend a principle, to combat: to try to stop sth. you don’t like from happening or increasing. Para. 4
Europeans saw economic unification as an antidote to deadly nationalism. an antidote ： a way of preventing or acting against sth. bad e.g. Humor can be an effective antidote to hostility. Europeans regarded economic unification as a way to prevent nationalism. Para. 5
As recently as 1990, governments—either individually or through such multilateral institutions as the World Bank— provided half the loans and credits to 29 major developing countries. multilateral: involving more than two groups or countries. Notice the prefix “multi-”, which means having many, e.g. multilingual, multimedia, multiple, multinational Para. 7
A decade later, even after Asia’s 1997—1998 financial crisis, private capital flows dwarf governmental flows. flows ： movement in one direction, esp. continuously and easily dwarf ： to make sth. seem small by comparison Ten years later, even after Asia’s financial crisis of 1997—1998, private capital flows are still greater in number than governmental capital flows. Para. 8
Meanwhile, multinational companies have gone on an international acquisition binge…the value of new cross-border mergers and acquisitions passed ＄ 500 billion in both advanced and developing countries. to go on a binge: to do much of sth, such as eating, drinking, shopping Cross-border: between countries Notice the prefix “cross-” Mergers and acquisition: 兼并与收购 Para. 9
The recent takeover struggle between British and German wireless giants is exceptional only for its size and bitterness. takeover ： the act of assuming control or management of giants ： a large company The only difference between the recent takeover struggle between British and German radio giants and other cases is that this takeover is much bigger and a lot bitter. Para. 10
In Europe, the relentless pursuit of the “single market” is one indicator. This reflects a widespread recognition that European companies will be hard-pressed to compete in global markets if their local operations are hamstrung by fragmented national markets. In Europe, the persistent and unremitting effort to turn all countries on the continent into a single market shows that there is a general agreement that if the European market remains divided into many small parts behind national borders, their companies will not be able to compete in the international market. Para. 13
Among poorer countries, the best sign of support is the clamor to get into the World Trade Organization... And 32 are seeking membership. clamor ： a noisy outcry seeking membership: to try to join; to apply for the membership Para. 14
Meanwhile, Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa—whose embrace of the world economy has been late or limited— fared much less well. Meanwhile, Latin America and sub-Sahara Africa, whose integration with the world economy has been late and limited, were not so lucky. Para. 17
The global economy may be prone to harsher boom-bust cycles than national economies individually. be prone to: likely or inclined to do sth. Once integrated with the world market, nations will naturally be more vulnerable to the fluctuations of the world economy. The capital flows in and out of a country, for example, can create a boom or bust very quickly and with much harsher effects. Para. 19
The Asian financial crisis raised questions on both counts. on both counts ： on both points under discussion The Asian financial crisis brought these two questions to people’s attention: investment funds were not well used and trade flows became too lopsided. Para. 20
What prevented the Asian crisis from becoming a full-scale global economic downturn has been the astonishing U. S. economy. It was the surprisingly vigorous growth of the U. S. economy that saved the Asian crisis from escalating into an all-round economic depression. Para. 22
If the forecasts materialize—and the OECD’s growth estimates for Japan exceed most private forecasts—they will restore some balance to the world economy and relieve fears of a global recession. If the forecasts come true—and the OECD’s growth estimates for Japan are higher than most private forecasts— they will, to some extent, help the world economy return to its earlier balance, and reduce the fear of a worldwide recession. Para. 27
It remains possible that abrupt surges of global capital, first moving into Asia and then out, will have caused, with some delay, a larger instability. surges ： a sudden and great increase It is still possible that sudden increase or withdrawal of the world’s capital, first moving into Asia and then out of it, will have made Asia more unstable. Para. 28
But this does not mean that a powerful popular backlash, with unpredictable consequences, is not possible. backlash ： an excessive or marked adverse reaction But this does not mean that a powerful hostile reaction from ordinary people, which will have unpredictable consequences, is not possible. Para. 33
1. How does the author define globalization? How does he explain the functions of the market? Why does the author say that in some respects globalization is merely a trendy work for an old process? 2. The author said that after World War II, the market growth re- accelerated, driven by political pressures and better technology. What does he mean? 3. What do you know about the establishment of the European Union? And do you think it is necessary? Ⅵ Questions for Further Discussion
4. What is the general attitude of the poorer countries towards globalization? Why are some countries so anxious to join the WTO? 5. What are the two problems that can neutralize the potential benefits of globalization and make it highly risky? 6. What problems may threaten the future of globalization? 7. What is your attitude towards globalization? Ⅵ Questions for further discussion
Ⅶ Language focus 1. Vocabulary Verb: project, relieve,neutralize, prevail Noun: prospect 2. Grammar Focus Sentence analysis Ways of expressing time Prepositions