2 Water: Who cares + why. How long can we live without food? 3 weeksHow long can we live without water?3 daysReally?! How much do we need per day?30 – 50 L(In dire situations, like a refugee camp the standard for aid agencies is at least 15L – Source: Sphere Standards)Okay… How much do we use?140 – 50 LWhat?! That is crazy! Where does it all go???
3 Where does it go? At home: Where else is water used? DrinkingCookingShower + washing handsFlushing the toiletGardening, washing the car etc.Where else is water used?Farming + Industry
4 How much water do we use? Blimey! Brushing teeth : 1 L Washing hands and face :4 LFlushing the toilet :19 LHaving a shower :35 LHaving a bath :80 L140 LBlimey!
6 Why can’t we drink straight from the River Cam? micro organismsdissolved chemicalsWithout an improved water source, people who drink water directly from lakes, rivers and wells may get sick from contaminants.There may be harmful bacteria or viruses in the water. E.coli is an example of a type of bacteria found in water that can make people very sick.There may be toxic chemicals in the water, from industrial waste or oil spills.Or there may be particulates in the water that makes water look cloudy. These particulates provide a place for harmful microorganisms to hide.Particulates (small bits)
7 Where does drinking water come from? River “source”Add chemicalsStirSettleFilterIn Canadian cities such as [insert city here], water goes through an elaborate treatment process before it is delivered to your taps. Quite a centralised system similar but not as centralised as electricity generation – contrast with local or household power generation or water collection eg. Rain water harvesting.Water is taken from the source through a large pipe and drawn into the treatment plant. A screen at the end of the pipe prevents logs, fish, and plants from being drawn in.Chemicals such as chlorine and aluminum sulphate (alum) are added and mixed intothe water. These chemicals kill bacteria in the water, improve its taste and odour, and cause any tiny particlesin the water to clump together and settle – this is called coagulation.Then the particles begin to stick to each other and form larger particles – this is called called flocculation.The water sits in a sedimentation basin for a time to allow the particles to settle to the bottom. In addition to removing particles from the water, this process also removes bacteria, which typically attach themselves to the particles.The water flows out of the sedimentation basin and into the filtration area. The water is filteredthrough layers of sand, gravel and other media such as activated carbon to remove any remainingparticles.Chlorine is added to kill any bacteria that are still in the water; a small amount remains in the water to kill any newbacteria that may be picked up while the water travels to people’s homes.DistributeStoreDisinfect
8 Is this a sensible system? Pros:- Good water quality- Managed supply- Easily regulated- Convenient-on tap- Highly centralizedCons:- Leaks- Taking out stuff we’re putting in.Quite a centralized system similar but not as centralized as electricity generation – contrast with local or household power generation or water collection eg. Rain water harvesting.
9 North Wales Diarrhoea Crisis, 2005 Fail Proof?North Wales Diarrhoea Crisis, 2005231 people infected!If this can happen in the UK, imagine what it is like to live in a developing country…Spares issues in a developing country.
10 Quick quiz…1. How many people worldwide do not have access to clean drinking water?a) 100 million (about 1 in 60 people)b) 500 million (about 1 in 12 people)c) 1.1 billion (about 1 in 5 people)d) 3 billion (about 1 in 2 people)C2. How many times more water do we each use everyday, compared to a person in a developing country?a) 10 – 30 timesb) 30 – 50 timesc) 50 – 70 timesd) 70 – 90 timesB3. As a cause of death in children under 5, diarrhoea weighs in at numbera) 2b) 6c) 10d) 12A – source: WHO – World Health Report 2005
11 Quick quiz…4. What percentage of illnesses in developing countries are water-related?a) 10%b) 30%c) 50%d) 80%D5.How many people die everyday from diseases related to bad water?a)b) 1000 –c) –d) or moreC6. What actions can reduce diarrhoea ?Improved water supplyImproved sanitationImproved household water treatmentHand washing
12 Who here likes rain?Rain = Survival! Not everyone has the resources and technology to make drinking water like us.
13 School vs Heavy Water Buckets Who most often collects water in developing countries?Women and childrenWhat’s wrong with that?In rural Africa 1/3 people have water within a 15min journey.For 44% it’s more than a half hour journey!Education for womenTime for employmentTime for growing food
14 The Filtration Challenge! The ChallengeIn groups, make a WORKABLE water filterEach group = country- Follow the instruction sheet- Buy supplies from front20 minutes ONLY!Demonstrate filter at end.For the next 20-minutes, you’re going to build your own water filter – a low cost technology that can help clean contaminated water.I’m going to divide the class into 6 groups. Starting from the front of the class [point to person sitting at front corner of class], count off from 1 to 6.When I say go, all the “ones” gather over here. All the “twos” gather over here…Okay, now you can rearrange yourselves to sit in your groups. [Distribute materials (pop bottle, plastic cup, bottle of dirty water, handouts and money) to each group.][Tip: To get the students’ attention back, you may want to clap your hands, or flick the classroom lights.]Each country group has been given Monopoly money with which you can buy the materials you need to make your water filter. Once you make your water filter, test it with your sample of dirty water, and we’ll see which country group can get the cleanest water at the end.There are 3 rules to this activity:1. You can only use the materials that we have provided to you;2. You should act in your country role; and3. You are encouraged to interact with other countries.[After 20 minutes, or when every group has completed their filter, ask a representative from each country group to stand at the front of the class and explain their group’s strategy to making the filter. Keep the samples of filtered water at the front of the class so that everyone can judge which one is the cleanest. If there isn’t a clear winner, you can get the class to vote on which sample is the cleanest.]
18 How does this relate to the real world? ActivityReal WorldMoney Difference- Based on actual country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP)Slide 7Now we’re going to talk about how the activity relates to the real world.[Show each row one by one by covering the rows below with a piece of paper. Before showing the “Real World” column for each row, ask the class what they think the elements of the activity relate to. For example:]1. Each country group was given a different amount of money. What do you think this relates to in the real world?[Tip: If no one raises their hand, ask everyone in the Ethiopia country group to raise their hands, and pick someone from their group to answer. Then ask everyone in the United States or Canada group to raise their hands, and pick someone from their group to answer. After the students have answered, reveal the “Real World” column.]The GDP is the total amount of money a country generates in a year, through goods produced, services provided and investments. This amount is divided by the total number of people in a country to give income per capita (or per person).2. Some countries’ instruction sheets were difficult to read. Raise your hand if your country group’s instructions were illegible. [Pick someone with their hand raised to explain what he/she thinks this represents in the real world.]3. The poorer countries were really creative and resourceful. [Use actual examples of this that you observed during the activity.] This is true in real life too. People in developing communities may not have lots of education or lots of financial resources, but they still come up with innovative ways to get by.4. I noticed some collaboration between countries. [Use actual examples of this that you observed during the activity. For example, sharing of resources.] This happens in real life too. Richer countries have formed organizations such as the G8 and the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). Poorer countries from Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean have formed the G24. At the last World Trade talks in Cancun last September, the G24 used their collective voice to try to urge the richer countries to lower agricultural subsidies.5. Any signs of patronizing attitudes? A parallel to the real world is that richer countries sometimes “dump” leftover food such as wheat and milk to developing countries. Sometimes, the receiving countries are not used to eating the foreign food, so it all goes to waste. In other cases, the surplus of food caused by dumping lowers the value of the locally produced food, and farmers in developing communities become even poorer.Illegible instructions- Based on actual country’s illiteracy rate- Lack of education and access to informationResourcefulness- People in poorer countries have their own ways of copingCountries share- Richer countries may offer “Official Development Assistance” (ODA) to poorer countries- Countries form groups like the G8, OECD, or Group of 24
19 The Real WorldIn 1970, countries agreed that 0.7% of GDP should go to aidOkay, but that was A LIFETIME ago for most of us(sorry teachers). Surely we are doing better now!Today, the average is 0.22%Say what?! What about us?In 2004, the UK donated 0.33% of GNI to aid yet UK had the 4th highest GDP in the world and 10th highest GDP per personWE COULD BE DOING MORE!
21 “Appropriate technology” It’s not just about giving money and technology…… it’s about using the best long-term solution for the problem!e.g. A Ferrari won’t last long in a desert (unfortunately)
22 Thinking about “technology” more broadly… Social Issues – Who wins + who loses?Cultural Issues – Some people see water as sacred.Training – Who will fix it?Cost – Can the local customers afford to buy and run it? Cheaper to make locally?Social issues: hygiene and sanitation -- handwashing and strategic latrine placement can reduce disease incidence by 1/3Cultural issues: beliefs about water and not drinking itInformation, knowledge, and skills: do they exist?Affordability?Ownership – Are they going to care if everything is done for them? Is it going to last long?
23 What can we do to make a difference from Cambridge?
24 Action Water saved 5L/min 5000L/person/year 300L/week 140L/week But remember a long shower on full flow can use as much or more than a bath140L/week500L/weekTurning off the tap when you brush your teeth or wash your faceFree Flush Saving devices are available at:Fix leaky taps in your home
25 You could also help developing countries! - Fundraise money for charities like Water Aid and Water For Children AfricaKeep up to date with developing countries by signing on at:
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