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Ajay Chaudry, The Urban Institute The Demographics of Children in Immigrant Families The Demographics of Children in Immigrant Families “Immigrant Children:

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Presentation on theme: "Ajay Chaudry, The Urban Institute The Demographics of Children in Immigrant Families The Demographics of Children in Immigrant Families “Immigrant Children:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ajay Chaudry, The Urban Institute The Demographics of Children in Immigrant Families The Demographics of Children in Immigrant Families “Immigrant Children: Caught in the Crossfire” The Annie E. Casey Foundation Baltimore, June 23, 2008

2 THE URBAN INSTITUTE / Washington, D.C Percent 37.5 Million (2006) 4.7 Percent 12.5 Percent (2006) 40 Million + (2010) 13 + Percent (2010) 37.5 Million Immigrants Total: 12.5% of U.S. Population

3 THE URBAN INSTITUTE / Washington, D.C. Over 1 in 5 U.S. Children Have Immigrant Parents Children of Immigrants Born in U.S. Foreign-Born Sources: Urban Institute Tabulations from 2005 CPS, March Demographic and Economic Supplement; 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000 Census Integrated Public Use Microdata Samples (IPUMS). Note: Children of Immigrants have at least one parent born outside the United States. Immigrants exclude individuals born in Puerto Rico. Share of U.S. Children under Age 18

4 2/3 of Immigrants Lived in 6 States, /3 of Immigrants Lived in 6 States, 2000 Immigration Categories 6 Main Destination States (75% of immigrants in 1990 and 67% in 2000)

5 22 States Grew Faster than “Big 6” from 1990 to States Grew Faster than “Big 6” from 1990 to 2000 Immigration Categories 22 New Growth States ( > 91%) 6 Main Destination States (75% of immigrants in 1990, 67% in 2000) Top 10 Growth States ( %)

6 THE URBAN INSTITUTE / Washington, D.C. States with the Fastest Growing Immigrant Populations, States with the Fastest Growing Immigrant Populations, Percent Growth in Foreign-Born Population, THE URBAN INSTITUTE / Washington, D.C. US Avg. 15% (U.S. Census, 2000, & American Community Survey, 2005)

7 THE URBAN INSTITUTE / Washington, D.C Million Foreign-Born (2006 U.S. American Community Survey) Mexico 11.5 million (31%) Europe, Canada, Australia 6 million (16%) Africa & West Indies 1.4 million (4%) Other Latin America 8.5 million (23%) Asia 10 million (27%) Half of U.S. Immigrants from Latin America, A Quarter from Asia

8 THE URBAN INSTITUTE / Washington, D.C. Legal permanent residents = noncitizens admitted for permanent residency (“green card” holders) Undocumented immigrants = entered illegally or overstayed visas Naturalized citizens = immigrants who have become U.S. citizens after passing the citizenship test Refugees - admitted for “well founded fear of persecution” Definitions

9 THE URBAN INSTITUTE / Washington, D.C. 37 Million Foreign-Born in 2005 (Passel 2006) Legal permanent residents (LPR) (10.5 million) 28% Legal temporary residents (1.3 million) 3% Naturalized citizens (11.5 million) 31% Refugees (2.6 million) 7% Unauthorized immigrants (11.1 million) 30% 3 in 10 U.S. Immigrants Are Unauthorized

10 THE URBAN INSTITUTE / Washington, D.C. Most Children of Immigrants Are U.S. Born Citizens (March 2005 Current Population Survey, Imputed) 73.9 Million Children in 2005

11 THE URBAN INSTITUTE / Washington, D.C. 1+ Non-Citizen Adults and 1+ Citizen Children 9.6 Million U.S. Children 13% of all U.S. Children 60% of Kids in Immigrant Families 84% of Kids in Non-Citizen Families In Legal Immigrant (LPR) Families -- 86% of Kids are Citizens!! Mixed Status Families (March 2005 Current Population Survey, Imputed)

12 THE URBAN INSTITUTE / Washington, D.C. Young Children of Immigrants (0-5) Most Likely to be U.S. Citizens (March 2004 Current Population Survey) Percent U.S.-Born Citizens

13 THE URBAN INSTITUTE / Washington, D.C. Poverty is Increasing among Children of Immigrants Children of immigrants White, not Hispanic children* Percent of K-12 Students in Families Below 100% of Poverty African-American children* Source: Van Hook & Fix (2000); Urban Institute tabulations from C2SS PUMS. Excludes Puerto Ricans. * Includes children of both immigrants and natives.

14 THE URBAN INSTITUTE / Washington, D.C. Within Two-Parent Families Immigrant Children are Poorer Share of group in families with incomes below 100% of federal poverty level (1999 National Survey of America’s Families)

15 THE URBAN INSTITUTE / Washington, D.C. Share with family income below 100% of Federal Poverty Level Mexican, Central American, Southeast Asian and African Children Have Highest Poverty Rates (2005 American Community Survey)

16 THE URBAN INSTITUTE / Washington, D.C. Young Children of Immigrants Least Likely to Be in Single Parent Families Percent Living in Single Parent Families (1999 National Survey of America’s Families)

17 THE URBAN INSTITUTE / Washington, D.C. Immigrant Families with Limited English Proficient Adults Are Poorer New York City Los Angeles (Los Angeles New York City Immigrant Survey, ) 33% 59% 69% 33%

18 THE URBAN INSTITUTE / Washington, D.C. 1/3 of Young Children of Immigrants (0-5) Are Linguistically Isolated (2000 Census, 5 percent PUMS)

19 THE URBAN INSTITUTE / Washington, D.C. 2/3 of LEP Children’s Incomes below School Lunch Threshold, 1/2 Have Parents with less than High School (U.S. Census, 2000)

20 THE URBAN INSTITUTE / Washington, D.C. Children of Immigrants Have High Levels of Economic Hardship (1999 National Survey of America’s Families)

21 THE URBAN INSTITUTE / Washington, D.C. Children of Immigrants Face Greater Food & Health Problems Percent of Children (1999 National Survey of America’s Families)

22 THE URBAN INSTITUTE / Washington, D.C. Children of Immigrants Get Less Assistance with Problems Percent of Children (1999 National Survey of America’s Families)

23 THE URBAN INSTITUTE / Washington, D.C. Immigrant Parents Also Lack Needed Services (1999 National Survey of America’s Families)

24 THE URBAN INSTITUTE / Washington, D.C. Foreign-Born Children Lack Health Care Access (1999 National Survey of America’s Families)

25 THE URBAN INSTITUTE / Washington, D.C. Share of children under age 6 in center-based child care (2002 National Survey of America’s Families) Children with Working Immigrant Parents Less Likely in Center-based Care

26 THE URBAN INSTITUTE / Washington, D.C. Source: 2002 National Survey of America’s Families. Share of children under age 6 in center-based child care Children with Least Educated Parents Least Likely in Center-based Care

27 For more information, contact: Ajay Chaudry Director, Center on Labor, Human Services, and Population Urban Institute 2100 M St., NW Washington, DC Ajay Chaudry Director, Center on Labor, Human Services, and Population Urban Institute 2100 M St., NW Washington, DC (202)


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