Presentation on theme: "Co-witnesses’ effects on eyewitness memory: The Misinformation Paradigm Date & Time: 7th of January 1030 hours Chair: Kazuo Mori, Shinshu University Contributors:"— Presentation transcript:
Co-witnesses’ effects on eyewitness memory: The Misinformation Paradigm Date & Time: 7th of January 1030 hours Chair: Kazuo Mori, Shinshu University Contributors: Kazuo Mori, Shinshu University Yuji Itoh, Keio University Fiona Gabbert, University of Aberdeen Elizabeth F. Loftus, University of California, Irvine
Introduction: Three researchers will present their experimental findings of co-witness influences on memory using new experimental paradigms. Despite differences in their methods, similar findings have been obtained. Witnesses tended to conform to their co-witnesses and report what the co-witnesses had observed as if it had been observed by themselves. Following the presentations, Beth will discuss the main findings and implications of them.
A New Experimental Paradigm for Collaborative Eyewitness Testimony Using a Presentation Trick Kazuo Mori Shinshu University, Nagano, Japan
The MORI technique: A new experimental procedure for research in memory distortion. Mori, 2003b) Uses the polarization properties of light. Two different images presented on the same screen can be seen separately by two groups of viewers without them noticing that there are two different overlapping images. Projector B is tilted 90 degrees to make its polarized image perpendicular to Image A.
Outline of the event Fig.3 Two versions of basically the same event A car pulls up in front of a female pedestrian. The driver gets out of the car to ask her for directions. While she explains the directions, another passenger sneaks out of the car to steal something from her bag. The pedestrian walks away without noticing the theft.
Three Differing Points Color of the car: dark car vs. white car Fig.4 Three Differing Points in the Two Versions Clothes of the driver: parka with stripes vs. white shirt Direction of the pedestrian after the thievery: walking toward the viewer vs. walking away from the viewer
One or two weeks Fig.5 Experimental Schedule Discussion Pre-Discussion Report (Separate) Post-Discussion Report(Unified) Week-Later Report (Separate) Presentation of the Event Post-Discussion Report(Separate) About 20 to 25 minutes
Main Results (Kanematsu et al.,1996/2003) No subjects noticed the presentation trick. No group failed to reach agreement even on the three differing points. –Witnesses would easily change their opinion about what they had seen. There was no clear tendency concerning who conceded to whom. Even those who changed their original report had high confidence in their memory. –Confidence would not insure the accuracy. Discussion improved memory performance in general. ■■■■■■■■■■ ■■■■■■ ■■■■■ ■ ■■ Absolutely Confident Highly Confident Rather Confident Neutral Not So Confident Hardly Confident Least Confident■■■■■■ ■■■■■■■■■■■■ ■■■■■■■■■ ■ ■■■ ■:Reported what they had seen correctly ■:Reported consciously what the other party had seen ■:Reported unconsciously what the other party had seen ■:Reported mutually what the other party had seen Confidence Ratings Fig.6 Distribution of Confidence Ratings and their Accuracy
Summary of Results of Experiments Using the MORI Technique Sex and gender comparison –No sex differences in conformity Fig.7 Group size of witnesses –One always concedes to two –Fewer conformities in two vs. two Mother-child pairs –Mothers not always dominant Animations –Easy to remember –Fewer conformities Pre-schoolers –Poorer memory performance –More conformities
Effects of Group Size (Mori & Mori, 2004) Less frequent ‘ Conscious agreements ’ (■) in Two-vs-Two Fig.8 Agreement in Week-Later Reports More frequent ‘ Conscious agreements ’ (■) in Two-vs-One No differences among ‘ Unconscious agreements ’ (■)
Mother-Child Pairs (Mori, 2003a) No differences were found concerning whose opinions were taken. Mothers’ Opinions Children’s Opinions Others Fig.9 Dominant Opinions for the Three Differing Points No significant tendencies for choosing between original and agreed answers. Back to Originals Maintain Agreed Answers Other Choices Fig.10 Choices in Week-Later Reports
Animation: a new technique Events presented by an animated picture were much easier to remember than those by real pictures. Fig.11 Fig.12 Fig.13 Subjects made fewer adoptions of the other party ’ s opinions.
Preschoolers vs. Undergraduates (Mori & Takahashi, 2004) Pre-schoolers showed poorer recall than undergraduates in general. Mean Recall Scores at the Three Recall Periods Fig.14 Poorer Recall in Preschoolers p<.01 Pre-schoolers tended to conform more frequently than undergraduates in the Week-Later Reports. p<.05 Fig.15 More Frequent Conformity among Preschoolers Adjusted Frequency ofConformity
References Hirokawa,K.,Matsuno,E.,Mori,K.,& Ukita,J.(2003) The relationship between masculinity-femininity and suggestibility in an experimental collaborative eyewitness testimony. Submitted to Asian Journal of Social Psychology. Kanematsu,H.,Mori,K.,& Mori,H. (1996/2003) Memory distortion in eyewitness pairs who observed nonconforming events and discussed them. Ninchi-Kagaku (in Japanese, 1996); Journal of the Faculty of Education Shinshu University,109, 75-84, (2003). Mori,K.(2003a). “No, Mum. It was a white car”: What happens if mother and child dyads witness the same event differently? Poster presented at the 4th Tsukuba International Conference on Memory, Tsukuba, (March, 2003) Mori,K.(2003b). Surreptitiously projecting a different movie to two subsets of viewers. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 35, Mori,K. & Mori,H.(2004). Second-Order Effects of the Presence of Co-witnesses on Memory Conformity in Experimental Collaborative Eyewitness Testimony. Submitted to Journal of Applied Social Psychology. Mori,K. 、 & Takahashi, R. (2004). Pre-schoolers’ reports of conflicting points surreptitiously inserted into a co-witnessed event. Paper presented at the 5th Tsukuba International Conference on Memory, Tsukuba, (March, 2004) Acknowledgments. This research was supported by the Grant-in-Aid from Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science, and Technology (Grant No ).
Two Different Verbal Materials Are Presented Simultaneously
The fMORI Technique (Mori, 2004) A single projector can project two different items onto a single screen to be seen separately by two groups of viewers. Projector (EPSON LP-700) Component G and Components R&B are overlaid. Component G and Components R&B are seen separately through polarizing sunglasses. T S
Merits and demerits of the two MORI Techniques The original MORI Full color movies Two DLP projectors are needed. Difficult to arrange the suitable position. The fMORI Monochrome, still pictures, or words Only one LCD projector is needed. Arrangement is not necessary.
Collaborators are Wanted. If you want to use the MORI technique, me: