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Rac·ism n. 1: The belief that race accounts for differences in human character or ability and that a particular race is superior to others. 2: Discrimination.

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Presentation on theme: "Rac·ism n. 1: The belief that race accounts for differences in human character or ability and that a particular race is superior to others. 2: Discrimination."— Presentation transcript:

1 rac·ism n. 1: The belief that race accounts for differences in human character or ability and that a particular race is superior to others. 2: Discrimination or prejudice based on race Source: Dictionary.com

2 Hypothesises Norwegians and foreigners are equally treated in the media Norwegians and foreigners are equally treated in the media Non-natives are more often talked about – than with Non-natives are more often talked about – than with Reports about crime often stress that the offender is non-native Reports about crime often stress that the offender is non-native Foreigners are spoken differently of in the two channels (NRK/TV2) Foreigners are spoken differently of in the two channels (NRK/TV2) Use of vague language to avoid being politically incorrect. Use of vague language to avoid being politically incorrect.

3 Case 1: Grade level in Norwegian Middle Schools Comparison between two Norwegian TV-channels news reports

4 Case 1 - Clip 1 NRK(non-commercial)

5 ”Children of parents with low education level are loosing ground in the school” ”Children of parents with low education level are loosing ground in the school”

6 Gran School Gran School 85 % with an immigrant background 85 % with an immigrant background Students from 32 non- Western countries, mainly from Pakistan Students from 32 non- Western countries, mainly from Pakistan The report mentions that students with immigrant background have poorer grades than the Norwegian students The report mentions that students with immigrant background have poorer grades than the Norwegian students

7 Director of the learning institution, Jostein Osnes: Director of the learning institution, Jostein Osnes: ”Social background and the area in which the student lives, should not have an impact on the students grades” ”Social background and the area in which the student lives, should not have an impact on the students grades”

8 Best grade: 6.0 Best grade: 6.0 Passing grade: 2.0 Passing grade: 2.0 Differences in grade levels between Ris School, Oslo West, and Gran School, Oslo East. Differences in grade levels between Ris School, Oslo West, and Gran School, Oslo East.

9 Principal at Gran School, Signe Marie Natvig Andreassen: Principal at Gran School, Signe Marie Natvig Andreassen: ”The report takes basis in a very special year for the school. Previously the schools grade levels has been at the nation wide average, and this year we will do even better” ”The report takes basis in a very special year for the school. Previously the schools grade levels has been at the nation wide average, and this year we will do even better”

10 Education Minister, Kristin Clemet: Education Minister, Kristin Clemet: ”There has, until recently, been a lack of knowledge. The evaluation of an reform implemented in 1997, shows that one needs to be more engaged in the fact that the students need to be dedicated to basic knowledge. One also needs to be careful in leaving the students to themselves, since this will favor the strongest students” ”There has, until recently, been a lack of knowledge. The evaluation of an reform implemented in 1997, shows that one needs to be more engaged in the fact that the students need to be dedicated to basic knowledge. One also needs to be careful in leaving the students to themselves, since this will favor the strongest students”

11 A satisfied student A satisfied student

12 MEANS OF REPORTING Angle: negative, emphasizes immigrants and students with an foreign background Angle: negative, emphasizes immigrants and students with an foreign background Structure: general facts, situation pictures, close-up pictures, comments, five short interviews Structure: general facts, situation pictures, close-up pictures, comments, five short interviews Use of images / pictures: students with foreign background, press conference Use of images / pictures: students with foreign background, press conference

13 Case 1 - Clip 2 TV2(commercial)

14 Conclusion Both news reports are based on the same written report Both news reports are based on the same written report The major difference is which part of the report that is stressed The major difference is which part of the report that is stressed NRK had a negative angle NRK had a negative angle TV2 had a positive angle TV2 had a positive angle

15 Comparison: Case 1 NRK Emphasis that foreign students earns poorer grades, and generally do poorer in school Emphasis that foreign students earns poorer grades, and generally do poorer in school Uses a school with poor grade levels Uses a school with poor grade levels Focus on data from the report Focus on data from the report Starts out with a harsh comment Starts out with a harsh comment Interviews a foreign student and people who is touched by the theme. Interviews a foreign student and people who is touched by the theme. Use experts to back up the information Use experts to back up the informationTV2 All students are equally good, no difference between Norwegian students and foreign students All students are equally good, no difference between Norwegian students and foreign students Uses a school with good grade levels Uses a school with good grade levels Gets subjective opinions Gets subjective opinions Starts smiling with positive comments Starts smiling with positive comments Interviews a Norwegian student Interviews a Norwegian student

16 Case 2: Prostitution Presented on March 8 th – the international day of women’s rights Presented on March 8 th – the international day of women’s rights FAFO - Institute for Applied International Studies FAFO - Institute for Applied International Studies Crossing Borders: An Empirical Study of Transnational Prostitution and Trafficking in Human Beings Crossing Borders: An Empirical Study of Transnational Prostitution and Trafficking in Human Beings

17 Case 2 - Clip 1 TV2(commercial)

18 Negative language: “foreign prostitutes are invading Oslo” Negative language: “foreign prostitutes are invading Oslo” implies that the organisers are criminal, without saying it – describes them as being “less nice” implies that the organisers are criminal, without saying it – describes them as being “less nice” Inconsistent use of numbers – 2/3 vs. 79% later on Inconsistent use of numbers – 2/3 vs. 79% later on Refers to the report made by FAFO Refers to the report made by FAFO

19 leading questioning ”how do you notice that....” leading questioning ”how do you notice that....” negative language ”Oslo is flowing over with foreign prostitutes” negative language ”Oslo is flowing over with foreign prostitutes” presents the foreign prostitutes as a problem for the norwegian prostitutes ”the prices are bargained down” presents the foreign prostitutes as a problem for the norwegian prostitutes ”the prices are bargained down” negative language ”the foreigners are more agressive” negative language ”the foreigners are more agressive”

20 focusing on foreign prostitutes controlling the market – instead of the social implications of the problem focusing on foreign prostitutes controlling the market – instead of the social implications of the problem

21 TV2: Inconsistent use of numbers – 79% vs. 2/3 earlier TV2: Inconsistent use of numbers – 79% vs. 2/3 earlier

22 Interview with one of the researchers of FAFO, presentation of facts – no conclusions are drawn. Interview with one of the researchers of FAFO, presentation of facts – no conclusions are drawn.

23 Refers to facts from the report regarding the use of internet Refers to facts from the report regarding the use of internet

24 Facts: the prostitutes hav to pay 5000 NOK (about €600) to their pimp every day Facts: the prostitutes hav to pay 5000 NOK (about €600) to their pimp every day

25 It is obvious that she is answering a leading question. It is obvious that she is answering a leading question. The norwegian prostitute draws conclusions that TV2 presents as facts. The norwegian prostitute draws conclusions that TV2 presents as facts.

26 Shows a plastic bag with her equipment – without any obvious reason. “Fill-in”. Shows a plastic bag with her equipment – without any obvious reason. “Fill-in”.

27 Case 2 - Clip 2 NRK(non-commercial)

28 Sympatises with the foreign prostitutes, claiming they’re here to support their families. Sympatises with the foreign prostitutes, claiming they’re here to support their families. Refers to the FAFO report Refers to the FAFO report

29 The clip is presented as a story The clip is presented as a story Biased – partial to the prostitutes Biased – partial to the prostitutes

30 FAFO researcher: FAFO researcher: Explains their background and intentions. Explains their background and intentions.

31 Presents facts from the report, for instance the use of internet to get clients. Presents facts from the report, for instance the use of internet to get clients. Neutral language Neutral language

32 Interview with FAFO researcher – refers to the report. Interview with FAFO researcher – refers to the report.

33 In addition to the FAFO researchers, NRK also interviews a representative for the government – presenting what is being done to help these women. In addition to the FAFO researchers, NRK also interviews a representative for the government – presenting what is being done to help these women.

34 Erna Solberg, minister of local government Erna Solberg, minister of local government

35 Gloomy mood as the night falls Gloomy mood as the night falls The story ends The story ends

36 Comparison: Case 2 TV2 Negative language (uses the word foreign/foreigners, ”us” vs. ”them”) Negative language (uses the word foreign/foreigners, ”us” vs. ”them”) leading questions, unprecise numbers (distorting the facts) leading questions, unprecise numbers (distorting the facts) creates a conflict between norwegian and foreign prostitutes creates a conflict between norwegian and foreign prostitutes victimises the norwegian prostitutes victimises the norwegian prostitutesNRK Focuses on the social problems Focuses on the social problems discusses different ways of helping them discusses different ways of helping them victimises the foreign prostitutes victimises the foreign prostitutes told as a story told as a story more ”expert” opinions (more in-depth) more ”expert” opinions (more in-depth)

37 Similarities both features are based on the same report both features are based on the same report both features last about 2 minutes both features last about 2 minutes none of them interviews any foreigners none of them interviews any foreigners

38 Conclusion Norwegians and foreigners are equally treated in the media Norwegians and foreigners are equally treated in the media Non-natives are more often talked about – than with Non-natives are more often talked about – than with Reports about crime often stress that the offender is non-native Reports about crime often stress that the offender is non-native Foreigners are spoken differently of in the two channels (NRK/TV2) Foreigners are spoken differently of in the two channels (NRK/TV2) Use of vague language to avoid being politically incorrect. Use of vague language to avoid being politically incorrect.

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