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James Leigh, University of Nicosia Tracy Bucco Cultural Geography.

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Presentation on theme: "James Leigh, University of Nicosia Tracy Bucco Cultural Geography."— Presentation transcript:

1 James Leigh, University of Nicosia Tracy Bucco Cultural Geography

2 Population Part 2 Crowd,

3 This lecture’s reading Rubenstein, J. (2005), The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography, Latest Edition, Saddle River, Prentice Hall. –Chapter: Population Fellman, J. Getis, A. and Getis, J. (2005), Human Geography: Landscapes of Human Activities, Latest Edition, New York, McGraw-Hill. –Chapter: Populations: World Patterns, Regional Trends

4 Fertility rates, Hypothesis: Poorer are less literate and have more children. GDP / caiita, Literacy rates,

5 World Population Increase Population growth,

6 Video What are some future population trends? What are some areas increasing or decreasing in population? Video – “Alarming Facts about the Population of the World” (4 minutes) Then checkout World Population,

7 Population “doubling time” Small changes in populations increase have dramatic effects NIR of: –1.0% doubles population in 70 years –1.4% doubles population in 51 years –2.2% doubles population in 35 years

8 Where is the populations increase? Mostly LDCs in: –Africa –Asia –Latin America –Middle East In last decade world population growth: –2/3 in Asia –1/3 divided equally among: Sub Saharan Africa Latin America Middle East NIR,

9 To explain population increase Total Fertility Rate (TFR): Average number of children a woman will have in her childbearing years (~15-49) World rate is ~3 Rate > 6 in some sub Saharan countries Rate <2 in ~ every European country TFR,

10 To explain population increase Infant Mortality Rate (IMR): Annual number of deaths of infants < 1 year against the total number of births Per 1,000 High in poor countries of sub-Saharan Africa –In some LDC exceeds 100 (>10%) Low in Western Europe –Only <50 (<5%) Reflects standard of living and medical facilities, and in-country socioeconomic status IMR,

11 To explain population increase Life expectancy at birth measures the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live –High in MDCs Western Europe –Low in LDCs Sub-Saharan Africa LE,

12 Young populations Young populations,

13 Brief review MDCs have: –Higher life expectancy –Older populations –Lower rates of: Natural increase Crude birth Total fertility Infant mortality LDCs have: –Lower life expectancy –Younger populations –Higher rates of: Natural increase Crude birth Total fertility Infant mortality Population growth,

14 Demographic Transition Typical Stages of Process of Development –1. High BR and DR, stable population –2. Rapidly falling DR  population increase, urbanizing –3. BR decline as DR continue to decline  moderation of population increase –4. Low BR and DR  population stability (or decrease) Influenced by: Industrial Revolution Medical Revolution Wealth Infrastructure Social philosophy DT,

15 Note post-industrial Demographic transition (Jordan & Domosh)

16 Population pyramids Wide base shows large number of children, but rapid narrowing as many die between each age band. The pyramid indicates a population with high BR, high DR and short life expectancy. Typical for poorer countries - little access to birth control, poor environmental factors (e.g. no clean water), minimal health services. Note more females than males in age groups – females live longer. PP,

17 Comparative Pop’n increase % Switzerland ~ 0.5 Malawi ~ 2.4 Stable Growing PP,

18 Obviously declining population in 2050

19 Pyramid types PP,

20 China’s Changing pyramid China PP,

21 Canada’s changing pyramid Canada PP,

22 PP,

23

24

25 Pyramid’s historical effects: Germany (unreferenced)

26 (Unreferenced)

27 World’s aging population Population,

28 LD regions population share S S Africa – 18% China – 16 India  17 – 17 N East/N Africa + 6 – 8 Other Asia + 17 – 20 Latin America + 8 – 9 (Fellmann)

29 Looming Challenges Overpopulation Old populations Peak phenomena (scarcity): –Food –Resources –Energy –Commodities High prices Declining economic development Poverty Climate change Pollution Famine / disease War Old man,

30 Many visual items are used in the course. They have been collected in “notes” over several years. If any items are unreferenced please let us know. We would be happy to give credits. James Leigh, University of Nicosia Tracy Bucco


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