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James Leigh, University of Nicosia

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1 James Leigh, University of Nicosia
Cultural Geography James Leigh, University of Nicosia Tracy Bucco

2 Crowd,
Population Part 2 Crowd,

3 This lecture’s reading
Rubenstein, J. (2005), The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography, Latest Edition, Saddle River, Prentice Hall. Chapter: Population Fellman, J. Getis, A. and Getis, J. (2005), Human Geography: Landscapes of Human Activities, Latest Edition, New York, McGraw-Hill. Chapter: Populations: World Patterns, Regional Trends

4 Hypothesis: Poorer are less literate and have more children.
GDP / caiita, Hypothesis: Poorer are less literate and have more children. Literacy rates, Fertility rates,

5 World Population Increase
Population growth,

6 Video What are some future population trends?
What are some areas increasing or decreasing in population? Video – “Alarming Facts about the Population of the World” (4 minutes) Then checkout World Population,

7 Population “doubling time”
Small changes in populations increase have dramatic effects NIR of: 1.0% doubles population in 70 years 1.4% doubles population in 51 years 2.2% doubles population in 35 years

8 Where is the populations increase?
Mostly LDCs in: Africa Asia Latin America Middle East In last decade world population growth: 2/3 in Asia 1/3 divided equally among: Sub Saharan Africa NIR,

9 To explain population increase
Total Fertility Rate (TFR): Average number of children a woman will have in her childbearing years (~15-49) World rate is ~3 Rate > 6 in some sub Saharan countries Rate <2 in ~ every European country TFR,

10 To explain population increase
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR): Annual number of deaths of infants < 1 year against the total number of births Per 1,000 High in poor countries of sub-Saharan Africa In some LDC exceeds 100 (>10%) Low in Western Europe Only <50 (<5%) Reflects standard of living and medical facilities, and in-country socioeconomic status IMR,

11 To explain population increase
Life expectancy at birth measures the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live High in MDCs Western Europe Low in LDCs Sub-Saharan Africa LE,

12 Young populations Young populations,

13 Brief review MDCs have: LDCs have: Higher life expectancy
Older populations Lower rates of: Natural increase Crude birth Total fertility Infant mortality LDCs have: Lower life expectancy Younger populations Higher rates of: Population growth,

14 Demographic Transition
Typical Stages of Process of Development 1. High BR and DR, stable population 2. Rapidly falling DR  population increase, urbanizing 3. BR decline as DR continue to decline  moderation of population increase 4. Low BR and DR  population stability (or decrease) Influenced by: Industrial Revolution Medical Revolution Wealth Infrastructure Social philosophy DT,

15 Demographic transition
Note post-industrial (Jordan & Domosh)

16 PP,
Population pyramids Wide base shows large number of children, but rapid narrowing as many die between each age band. The pyramid indicates a population with high BR, high DR and short life expectancy. Typical for poorer countries - little access to birth control, poor environmental factors (e.g. no clean water), minimal health services. Note more females than males in age groups – females live longer. PP,

17 Comparative Pop’n increase % Switzerland ~ 0.5 Malawi ~ 2.4
Stable Growing PP,

18 Obviously declining population in 2050

19 PP,
Pyramid types PP,

20 China’s Changing pyramid
China PP,

21 Canada’s changing pyramid
Canada PP,

22 PP,

23 PP,

24 PP,

25 Pyramid’s historical effects: Germany

26 (Unreferenced)

27 World’s aging population

28 LD regions population share
S S Africa – 18% China – 16 India  – 17 N East/N Africa – 8 Other Asia – 20 Latin America – 9 LD regions population share (Fellmann)

29 Looming Challenges Overpopulation Old populations
Peak phenomena (scarcity): Food Resources Energy Commodities High prices Declining economic development Poverty Climate change Pollution Famine / disease War Old man,

30 Many visual items are used in the course.
They have been collected in “notes” over several years. If any items are unreferenced please let us know. We would be happy to give credits. James Leigh, University of Nicosia Tracy Bucco

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