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6 | 1 Chapter Six Understanding the Management Process.

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1 6 | 1 Chapter Six Understanding the Management Process

2 6 | 2 Learning Objectives Define management Describe the four basic management functions: planning, organizing, leading/motivating, and controlling Distinguish between various kinds of managers, with regard to level and area of management Identify key management skills and managerial roles Discuss different types of leadership Analyze the steps in the managerial decision- making process

3 6 | 3 Learning Objectives Describe how organizations benefit from total quality management Summarize the criteria for becoming a successful manager today

4 6 | 4 CEO Pay Compared to Average Worker Pay Source: 2007 Trends in CEO Pay, accessed 2/8/09.

5 6 | 5 What Is Management? The process of coordinating people and other resources to achieve the goals of an organization –Material resources The tangible physical resources an organization uses –Human resources The people who staff the organization and use the other resources to achieve the goals of the organization –Financial resources The funds the organization uses to meet its obligations to investors and creditors –Information resources The information about internal and external business environmental conditions that the firm uses to its competitive advantage

6 6 | 6 The Four Main Resources of Management

7 6 | 7 Basic Management Functions The Management Process

8 6 | 8 Planning –Establishing organizational goals and deciding how to accomplish them Mission –A statement of the basic purpose that makes an organization different from others Strategic planning –The process of establishing an organization’s major goals and objectives and allocating the resources to achieve them

9 6 | 9 Planning Establishing goals and objectives –Goals/Objectives An end result that the organization is expected to achieve over a period of time Long-term versus short-term –Properly set goals are Set at every level in the organization Consistent (supportive) with each other Optimized (balanced) to reduce conflicts between goals

10 6 | 10 Organizing the Enterprise Organizing –The grouping of resources and activities to accomplish some end result in an efficient and effective manner Leading and motivating –Leading Influencing people to work toward a common goal –Motivating Providing reasons for people to work in the best interests of the organization –Directing The combined processes of leading and motivating

11 6 | 11 Controlling Ongoing Activities Controlling –Evaluating and regulating ongoing activities to ensure that goals are achieved Control function

12 6 | 12 Kinds of Managers Levels of management –Top manager—guides and controls the overall fortunes of the organization; responsible for the performance of all departments –Middle manager—implements the strategy and major policies developed by top management; responsible for finding the best way(s) to organize human and other resources to achieve organizational goals –First-line manager—coordinates and supervises the activities of operating (nonmanagerial) employees The coordinated effort of all three levels of managers is required to implement the goals of any company

13 6| 13 Areas of Management Specialization Financial managers –Responsible for the organization’s financial resources Operations managers –Manage the systems that convert resources into goods and services Marketing managers –Responsible for facilitating the exchange of products between the organization and its customers or clients Human resources managers –Manage the organization’s human resources programs Administrative managers (general managers) –Not associated with any specific functional area; provide overall administrative guidance and leadership

14 6 | 14 Areas of Management Specialization Other areas may have to be added depending on the nature of the firm and the industry

15 6 | 15 What Makes Effective Managers? Key management skills –Technical skill A special skill needed to accomplish a specialized activity –Conceptual skill The ability to think in abstract terms –Interpersonal skill The ability to deal effectively with other people

16 6 | 16 What Makes Effective Managers? Managerial roles –Decisional roles Involve various aspects of management decision making –Entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, negotiator –Interpersonal roles The manager deals with people –Figurehead, liaison, leader –Informational roles A manager either gathers or provides information –Monitor, disseminator, spokesperson

17 6 | 17 Rules for Leaders Audit your company cultures Stay informed—informed people don’t fear change Beware of “aspirational” accounting (e.g. Enron) Empower your people — turn them loose Prevent erosion of human assets Be generous with what you know Source: “25 Rules for Leaders, 2006,” Fast Company,

18 6| 18 Class Exercise For each skill, provide an example of how a manager could use it in a real-world situation. –Technical skill –Conceptual skill –Interpersonal skill

19 6 | 19 Leadership The ability to influence others Formal leadership –Legitimate power of position is the basis for authority Informal leadership –Not recognized formally by the organization authority

20 6 | 20 Styles of Leadership Authoritarian –Holds all authority and responsibility, with communication usually moving from top to bottom Laissez-faire –Gives authority to employees and allows subordinates to work as they choose with a minimum of interference; communication flows horizontally among group members Democratic –Holds final responsibility but also delegates authority to others, who help determine work assignments; communication is active upward and downward

21 6 | 21 Debate Issue: Should Managers Use the Authoritarian Leadership Style? YES Some employees need the close supervision that authoritarian leaders provide. When authoritarian leadership is used, communication moves from top (supervisor) to bottom (employees). An authoritarian leader assigns workers to specific tasks and expects precise results, so workers know exactly what is expected. NO Workers resent the close supervision that results from the authoritarian leadership style. The democratic and laissez-faire leadership styles allow workers to communicate with the supervisor and other members of their group. Authoritarian leaders stifle the workers’ creativity and their ability to solve problems.

22 6 | 22 Which Leadership Style Is Best? Matching style to the situation Effective leadership depends on –Interaction among the employees –Characteristics of the work situation –The manager’s personality

23 6 | 23 Source: Data from The Conference Board 2006; Challenge survey of 658 CEOs and chairmen. CEOs’ Top Concerns

24 6 | 24 Managerial Decision Making The act of choosing one alternative from among a set of alternatives Major steps in the managerial decision- making process

25 6 | 25 Managerial Decision Making Identifying the problem or opportunity –Problem The discrepancy between an actual condition and a desired condition –Opportunity A “positive” problem –Problem-solving impediments Preconceptions about the problem Focusing on unimportant matters while overlooking significant issues Analyzing symptoms rather than causes Failing to look ahead

26 6 | 26 Managerial Decision-Making Process Generating alternatives –Brainstorming Encouraging participants to come up with new ideas –“Blast! then refine” Reevaluating objectives, modifying them if necessary, and devising a new solution Selecting an alternative –Satisficing Choosing an alternative that is not the best possible solution, but one that adequately solves the problem

27 6 | 27 Managerial Decision-Making Process Implementing and evaluating the solution –Requires time, planning, preparation of personnel, and evaluation of the results –An effective decision removes the difference between the actual condition and the desired condition –If a problem still exists, managers may Decide to give the chosen alternative more time Adopt a different alternative Start the process all over again

28 6 | 28 Managing Total Quality Total Quality Management (TQM) –The coordination of efforts directed at Improving customer satisfaction Increasing employee participation Strengthening supplier partnerships Facilitating an organizational atmosphere of continuous quality improvement Issues crucial to TQM –Top management commitment –Coordination of efforts

29 6 | 29 What It Takes to Become a Successful Manager Personal skills –Oral communication –Written communication –Computer skills –Critical thinking Education and experience –A solid academic background –Practical work experience

30 6| 30 Chapter Quiz 1.People in an organization are what type of resources? a)Material b)Informational c)Inventory d)Human e)Financial 2.In executing their functions, managers must first a)organize activities. b)establish goals. c)motivate employees. d)evaluate activities. e)select employees.

31 6 | 31 Chapter Quiz 3.Roles such as entrepreneur, disturbance handler, and resource allocator are types of _______ roles. a)interpersonal b)informational c)decisional d)leadership e)ownership 4.One type of leadership style is a)laissez-faire. b)CEO. c)entrepreneur. d)negotiator. e)bureaucratic.

32 6 | 32 Chapter Quiz 5.All of the following are reasons for a greater focus on quality by U.S. firms except a)competition from foreign firms. b)customers that are more demanding. c)unpredictability on Wall Street. d)poorer financial performance. e)reduced market share.

33 6 | 33 Answers to Chapter Quiz 1.People in an organization are what type of resources? a)Material b)Informational c)Inventory d)Human (Correct) e)Financial 2.In executing their functions, managers must first a)organize activities. b)establish goals. (Correct) c)motivate employees. d)evaluate activities. e)select employees.

34 6| 34 Answers to Chapter Quiz 3.Roles such as entrepreneur, disturbance handler, and resource allocator are types of _____________roles. a)interpersonal b)informational c)decisional (Correct) d)leadership e)ownership 4.One type of leadership style is a)laissez-faire. (Correct) b)CEO. c)entrepreneur. d)negotiator. e)bureaucratic.

35 6 | 35 Answers to Chapter Quiz 5.All of the following are reasons for a greater focus on quality by U.S. firms except a)competition from foreign firms. b)customers that are more demanding. c)unpredictability on Wall Street. (Correct) d)poorer financial performance. e)reduced market share.


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