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SUBSAHARAN AFRICA PBS Africa Website and Slideshows

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Presentation on theme: "SUBSAHARAN AFRICA PBS Africa Website and Slideshows"— Presentation transcript:

1 SUBSAHARAN AFRICA PBS Africa Website and Slideshows

2 Sub-Saharan Africa Plateau, Waterfall, Savanna, Rainforest, and Desert
Poorest continent Only region to get poorer over last 25 years World’s largest number of displaced people and refugees Debt crisis Most rural continent, though cities growing very fast Village life and subsistence agriculture important Glorious wildlife still exists Legacies of Colonialism Cash crop economies, ethnic conflict, flawed transport systems Medical Crises, including most HIV/AIDs in world Most of world’s remaining Animists But missionaries spreading Christianity and Islam War and Failed Political Leadership Common Few successful democracies

3 African Landscape Plateau, Waterfall, Savanna, Rainforest, and Desert
pg. 452 Plateau – high tableland Highest in: Ethiopian Highlands Drakensberg Mtns. Lesotho & RSA

4 Major Rivers 3 1 4 2 5 pg. 452 Niger Congo Blue Nile
Victoria/White Nile Zambezi 3 1 4 2 5 pg. 452

5 Rivers Rapids and Waterfalls… Limits transportation Good for Tourism
Congo… Good for Tourism Whitewater Rafting Hydroelectric Production

6 Beautiful Waterfalls Victoria Falls Blue Nile Falls

7 Victoria Falls On Zambezi River Zim/Zam border Zam Zim pg. 502

8 Rift Valleys Crust pulls apart Block of crust sinks

9 Rift Valley - Kenya

10 Rift Valleys Often have long, narrow lakes

11 Rift Valley Lakes Lake Tanganyika Lake Malawi pg. 452

12 Volcanoes pg. 452 Near rift valleys Eastern Congo Mt. Kenya
Mt. Kilimanjaro… pg. 452

13 Kilimanjaro

14 Mt. Kenya

15 Climate and Vegetation
Tropical Rainforest Congo Basin & coast of W. Africa Diseases Malaria Anopheles Mosquito pg. 455

16 GHANA

17 Tropical Savanna pg. 455 Grasses and scattered trees
Dry winter, Rainy summer pg. 455

18 Savanna Wildlife Tourism

19 Best Wildlife Countries
Kenya & Tanzania Zimbabwe, Botswana & Republic of S.A.

20 Poaching Elephant Ivory Tusks 2.5 million (1970) 1.8 million (1978)
350,000 (1997) 600,000 (2005)

21 Rhino Horn used as aphrodisiac in Asia 2300 (1992) 3600 (2004)
65,000 Black Rhinos in 1982 2300 (1992) 3600 (2004)

22 Savanna Masai Nomadic Herding of Cattle

23 Cattle Herding Destroys wilderness Tsetse Fly – sleeping sickness
Nat. Veg. Lost Soil compacted, eroded Loss of Wildlife Habitat Tsetse Fly – sleeping sickness Disease to Animals & Humans Wildlife Unaffected Benefits Wildlife by preventing spread of domesticated cattle

24 Deserts pg. 455 Somalia Kalahari Botswana Namib Namibia

25 Kalahari Semi-Desert Bushmen… pg. 455

26 Bushmen Languages (Khoisan)
“Clicking” pg. 462

27 Kalahari Okavango Delta… pg. 502

28 NAMIB DESERT

29 Sub-Saharan Africa Poorest continent
Only region to get poorer over last 25 years World’s largest number of displaced people and refugees Debt crisis 44% of population younger than 15 In 1990s number of those living in “extreme poverty (<$1/day) rose from 242 million to 300 million+ Angola, 2000

30 Rates of Natural Increase

31 Sub-Saharan Africa Most rural continent, though cities growing very fast Village life and subsistence agriculture important 69% of population is rural Glorious wildlife still exists Masai Village, Kenya Village, Zimbabwe Rwandan Farm

32 Sub-Saharan Africa Most rural continent, though cities growing very fast Village life and subsistence agriculture important Glorious wildlife still exists Rank City Population 1 Tokyo, Japan 28 million 2 New York City, United States 20.1 million 3 Mexico City, Mexico 18.1 million 4 Mumbai, India (Bombay) 18 million 5 Sao Paulo, Brazil 17.7 million 6 Los Angeles, United States 15.8 million 7 Shanghai, China 14.2 million 8 Lagos, Nigeria 13.5 million 9 Kolkata, India (Calcutta) 12.9 million 10 Buenos Aires, Argentina 12.5 million Lagos, Nigeria

33 Cape Town, Black Township, S. Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa Most rural continent, though cities growing very fast Village life and subsistence agriculture important Glorious wildlife still exists Lagos, Nigeria Cape Town, Black Township, S. Africa

34 Legacy of Colonialism Cash crop economies, ethnic conflict, flawed transport systems Oil Palm Production Rail Systems Connect Cities to Ports, Not Other Cities Coffee in Kenya

35 Slavery Impacted West Africa Angola Senegal Ghana

36 SLAVE CASTLE GHANA

37 European Colonialism pg. 467 Britain France Belgium Portugal Spain
East France Northwest Belgium Congo Portugal Mozambique Angola Spain Equatorial Guinea

38 BERLIN CONFERENCE 1884 14 countries divided up Africa without consideration of cultures; political and tribal fragmentation were the result. Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden-Norway (unified from ), Turkey, and the United States of America. Of these, France, Germany, Great Britain, and Portugal were the major colonizers of Africa

39 INDEPENDENT STATES IN AFRICA
1960 1950 1970 INDEPENDENT

40 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA’S ECONOMIC CHALLENGE
Economic growth rate- 1.5% - world’s lowest The region’s 646 million people have a combined GNP of less than $150 billion, roughly the same as Belgium and its 10 million people. Population - growing at a rate of 2.6% annually, vs 1.7% for South America and 1.9% for South Asia

41 Medical Crises, including most HIV/AIDs in world

42 MEDICAL GEOGRAPHY Studies spatial aspects of disease and health
Africa is an extraordinary laboratory. -- Disease incidence and diffusion -- Widespread nutritional deficiencies Millions suffer from: malaria - river blindness yellow fever - sleeping sickness AIDS - bilharzia/schistosomiasis

43 Active Figure 17.A: HIV/AIDS has had a devastating impact in Africa south of the Sahara and threatens to redraw the demographic profiles of some countries in unprecedented ways. Figure 17-A (b), p. 450

44 MEDICAL GEOGRAPHY Endemic Epidemic Pandemic
-- Exists in equilibrium with the population -- Many develop an immunity of sorts -- Saps energy, lowers resistance, shortens lives Epidemic -- Sudden outbreak at local, regional scale Pandemic -- Worldwide spread

45 MALARIA WIDESPREAD INCIDENCE

46 SLEEPING SICKNESS Tsetse Fly WIDESPREAD INCIDENCE

47 Most of world’s remaining Animists
But missionaries spreading Christianity and Islam

48 The Roots of Religion Animism (Shamanism) - the belief that all objects, animals, and beings are “animated” or possess a spirit and a conscious life. Also called shamanism because of the prominence of a shaman. Such beliefs are common among hunter-gatherers. 10% of Africans follow such traditional ethnic religions. These beliefs are losing ground to Christianity and Islam throughout Africa. Nigerian Shaman

49 War and Failed Political Leadership Common
Few successful democracies; political violence common Free press is rare Conflicts limit foreign investment

50 Some of Africa’s Current Dictators
Teodoro Obiang Nguema, Equatorial Guinea Age 61. In power since 1979 coup. Corrupt. Robert Mugabe, Zimbabwe Age 80. In power since Breaking up white-owned farms. Nepotism. Figure 17.21: Political systems in Africa south of the Sahara, 2004. King Mswati III, Swaziland Age 35. In power since Lavish lifestyle. Poor subjects. 11 wives. 3 Fiances. 25 children.

51 Idi Amin. Uganda. Reign: 1971 -1979. Famous for his brutality
Figure 17.21: Political systems in Africa south of the Sahara, 2004. Idi Amin. Uganda. Reign: Famous for his brutality Mobuto Sese Seko. Zaire (now Democratic Republic of Congo). Reign: Famous for kleptocracy (billions stolen) Fig , p. 476

52 The Sahel – 7 countries pg. 482

53 Sahel - “Shore” (7 Countries)
Southern edge of the Sahara Semi-Desert Between Savanna & Desert Grasses and small trees pg. 455 pg. 482

54 Sahel Environment Semi-Desert Grass and small trees

55 Desertification of the Sahel
Expansion of Sahara, due to: Drought Overgrazing

56

57 Cultural Transition of the Sahel
Light Skinned Muslims pg. 482 Black-skinned Christians, Animists

58 Cultural Transition of the Sahel
North of Sahel – Light-skinned Muslims

59 South of Sahel Black Africans Christian or animist

60 People in the Sahel Light Skinned Muslims Black-skinned Muslims
Mostly Muslim, Black Africans Light Skinned Muslims Black-skinned Muslims Black-skinned Christians, Animists

61 West Africa – 9 Countries
pg. 485

62 Environment pg. 455 pg. 485 Savanna in north
Tropical Rainforests on Coast 90% Deforested pg. 455 pg. 485

63 Southern Benin

64 W. African Agricultural Exports
Peanuts in savanna north Cocoa & Palm Oil in rainier south pg. 455 Peanuts Cocoa, Palm Oil

65 W. African Agricultural Exports
Palm Oil Ingredient of Food & Soap Cash crop economies are a major problem throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Cocoa Ivory Coast: 50% World’s Supply

66 West African Empires, 800-1800 AD
Mali Kingdom Capital: Timbuktu, on southern edge of Sahara Ancient Trade & Educational Center Niger River Pop = 100,000 in 1500 AD Pop = 15,000 now pg. 482

67 Niger River

68 Liberia Founded 1847 by freed American Slaves
Capital: Monrovia named for… Civil War: since 1980 war – child soldiers

69 Nigeria pg. 448 Largest pop. In Africa 3 Main Concentrations SW SE
North pg. 448

70 Nigeria pg. 485 H & F Y I pg. 486 250+ Ethnic Groups Yoruba in SW
Lagos – Nigeria’s largest city Ibo in SE Niger River Delta  Hausa & Fulani in N Muslims Kano – Nigeria’s main Muslim city Shari’a (Islamic Law) pg. 485 H & F Y I pg. 486

71 Nigeria pg. 471 Oil 90% of export income Niger Delta
Coastal oil to Angola   pg. 471

72 Nigeria pg. 485 pg. 486 Ethnic Tensions & Violence Capital moved
Civil War in late 1960s Ibo unsuccessfully tried to secede 1 million deaths Capital moved From Lagos to Abuja Abuja – in “neutral” region   pg. 485 pg. 486

73 pg. 490 Central Africa 7 Countries

74 Central Africa Environment
Tropical Rainforests 20% of World’s Remaining TRFs Rapid Deforestation ENVIRONMENTS pg. 455 pg. 490

75 Central Africa Resources
Coastal Oil D. R. Congo Rich in Metals & Diamonds Old name = “Zaire” Terrible Corruption & Warfare pg. 471

76 EAST AFRICA pg. 494 pg. 452 5 Countries Landscape Plateau Rift Valleys
Serengeti Plain (Tan.) Rift Valleys Lake Victoria pg. 494 pg. 452

77 Nairobi, Kenya 5000’ Elevation “Year-round spring”
Industrial Center of East Africa Nairobi, Kenya

78 Agriculture Tea in Kenya

79 Rwanda & Burundi Ex-Belgian Colonies pg. 494

80 RWANDA 2 Tribes 1994 Genocide against Tutsi Hutu (Majority)
Tutsi (Minority) 1994 Genocide against Tutsi Million killed in 100 days

81 RWANDA Mountain Gorillas 650 in world

82 Horn of Africa pg. 465 pg. 499 4 Countries Ethiopia Eritrea Djibouti
Somalia pg. 465 pg. 499

83 LANDSCAPE CLIMATE RELIGION
Hot, Dry Coastal Lowlands Muslim Ethiopian Highlands Christian pg. 499 LANDSCAPE CLIMATE RELIGION C M PG PG PG. 463

84 Ethiopian Highlands Canyons carved by water

85 Historical Background
Ethiopian Kingdom Adopted Christianity, 300 AD

86 Ethiopia Difficult Environment: Deep Canyons  Isolated Villages
Crops Depend on Erratic Rainfall Prolonged Drought  Famine

87 Southern Africa pg. 502

88 Minerals in Southern Africa
Zambia Zimbabwe Rep. So. Africa Gold Diamonds Platinum Coal pg. 471 Zam Zim RSA

89 Rep. of South Africa Environment EQUATOR TROPIC OF CAPRICORN pg. 452
Middle Latitudes 5000’ Plateau Mild Temps (60-70F) EQUATOR TROPIC OF CAPRICORN pg. 452

90 Drakensberg Mtns. RSA

91 Republic of South Africa
Blacks = 75% Whites = 14% Coloreds = 8% (mixed race) Asians = 3% (mostly Indians)

92 History of RSA pg. 503 Dutch Settlers Cape Town, est. 1652
“Boers” Descendents: “Afrikaners” Afrikaans Language British control, 1800s pg. 503

93 History of RSA Independence, 1910 1994 Elections White Rule Apartheid
Nelson Mandela

94 Cities of South Africa pg. 503 pg. 455 P J D C ENVIRONMENTS
Johannesburg & Pretoria “High Veld” Region Grassy Plateau Durban Warm & Rainy Like Florida Cape Town Mediterranean Climate Like So. Cal. pg. 503 pg. 455 P J D C ENVIRONMENTS

95 Johannesburg Largest City… Built amid…

96 Durban Zulus Sugarcane Plantations Asians (Indians)

97 Durban Beach Resorts Surfing

98 Rural South Africa (a few hrs from Durban)

99 Cape Town Legislative Capital Beautiful Location

100 Cape Town Area - Mediterranean Climate
Winter rain (June – Sept) Spring wildflowers

101 Vineyards & Wineries

102 Cape Town

103 Madagascar pg. 462 Settled 2000 years ago by…

104 Madagascar pg. 455 wind ENVIRONMENTS pg. 452 Mtns Trade Winds…
Rainforests 90% Cut Down pg. 455 wind ENVIRONMENTS pg. 452

105 Madagascar Unique Plants & Animals 90% are Endemic… Lemurs

106 Madagascar Endangered Species Lemurs Habitat Destruction…


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