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SUBSAHARAN AFRICA PBS Africa Website and Slideshows PBS Africa Website and Slideshows.

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Presentation on theme: "SUBSAHARAN AFRICA PBS Africa Website and Slideshows PBS Africa Website and Slideshows."— Presentation transcript:

1 SUBSAHARAN AFRICA PBS Africa Website and Slideshows PBS Africa Website and Slideshows

2 Sub-Saharan Africa Plateau, Waterfall, Savanna, Rainforest, and Desert Poorest continent –Only region to get poorer over last 25 years –World’s largest number of displaced people and refugees –Debt crisis Most rural continent, though cities growing very fast –Village life and subsistence agriculture important –Glorious wildlife still exists Legacies of Colonialism –Cash crop economies, ethnic conflict, flawed transport systems Medical Crises, including most HIV/AIDs in world Most of world’s remaining Animists –But missionaries spreading Christianity and Islam War and Failed Political Leadership Common –Few successful democracies

3 African Landscape Plateau, Waterfall, Savanna, Rainforest, and Desert Plateau – high tableland –Highest in: Ethiopian Highlands Drakensberg Mtns. –Lesotho & RSA

4 Major Rivers 1.Niger 2.Congo 3.Blue Nile 4.Victoria/White Nile 5.Zambezi

5 Rivers Rapids and Waterfalls… –Limits transportation Congo… –Good for Tourism Whitewater Rafting –Hydroelectric Production

6 Beautiful Waterfalls Blue Nile Falls Victoria Falls

7 On Zambezi River –Zim/Zam border

8 Rift Valleys Crust pulls apart Block of crust sinks

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10 Rift Valleys Often have long, narrow lakes

11 Rift Valley Lakes Lake Tanganyika Lake Malawi

12 Volcanoes Near rift valleys Eastern Congo Mt. Kenya Mt. Kilimanjaro…

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14 Mt. Kenya

15 Climate and Vegetation Tropical Rainforest –Congo Basin & coast of W. Africa –Diseases Malaria –Anopheles Mosquito

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17 Tropical Savanna Grasses and scattered trees Dry winter, Rainy summer

18 Savanna Wildlife Tourism

19 Best Wildlife Countries Kenya & Tanzania Zimbabwe, Botswana & Republic of S.A.

20 Poaching Elephant –Ivory Tusks –2.5 million (1970) –1.8 million (1978) –350,000 (1997) –600,000 (2005)

21 Rhino Horn used as aphrodisiac in Asia –65,000 Black Rhinos in 1982 2300 (1992) 3600 (2004)

22 Savanna Masai –Nomadic Herding of Cattle

23 Cattle Herding Destroys wilderness –Nat. Veg. Lost –Soil compacted, eroded –Loss of Wildlife Habitat Tsetse Fly – sleeping sickness –Disease to Animals & Humans –Wildlife Unaffected –Benefits Wildlife by preventing spread of domesticated cattle

24 Deserts Somalia Kalahari –Botswana Namib –Namibia

25 Kalahari Semi-Desert Bushmen…

26 Bushmen Languages (Khoisan) “Clicking”

27 Kalahari Okavango Delta…

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29 Sub-Saharan Africa Poorest continent –Only region to get poorer over last 25 years –World’s largest number of displaced people and refugees –Debt crisis –44% of population younger than 15 –In 1990s number of those living in “extreme poverty (<$1/day) rose from 242 million to 300 million+ Angola, 2000

30 Rates of Natural Increase

31 Sub-Saharan Africa Most rural continent, though cities growing very fast –Village life and subsistence agriculture important –69% of population is rural –Glorious wildlife still exists Masai Village, Kenya Village, Zimbabwe Rwandan Farm

32 Sub-Saharan Africa Most rural continent, though cities growing very fast –Village life and subsistence agriculture important –Glorious wildlife still exists Rank CityPopulation 1 Tokyo, Japan 28 million 2 New York City, United States 20.1 million 3 Mexico City, Mexico 18.1 million 4 Mumbai, India (Bombay) 18 million 5 Sao Paulo, Brazil 17.7 million 6 Los Angeles, United States 15.8 million 7 Shanghai, China 14.2 million 8 Lagos, Nigeria 13.5 million 9 Kolkata, India (Calcutta) 12.9 million 10 Buenos Aires, Argentina 12.5 million Lagos, Nigeria

33 Sub-Saharan Africa Most rural continent, though cities growing very fast –Village life and subsistence agriculture important –Glorious wildlife still exists Cape Town, Black Township, S. Africa Lagos, Nigeria

34 Legacy of Colonialism –Cash crop economies, ethnic conflict, flawed transport systems Rail Systems Connect Cities to Ports, Not Other Cities Oil Palm Production Coffee in Kenya

35 Slavery Impacted West Africa –Angola –Senegal –Ghana

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37 European Colonialism Britain –East France –Northwest Belgium –Congo Portugal –Mozambique –Angola Spain –Equatorial Guinea

38 BERLIN CONFERENCE 1884 14 countries divided up Africa without consideration of cultures; political and tribal fragmentation were the result. Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden-Norway (unified from 1814-1905), Turkey, and the United States of America. Of these, France, Germany, Great Britain, and Portugal were the major colonizers of Africa

39 INDEPENDENT STATES IN AFRICA 1950 1960 1970 INDEPENDENT

40 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA’S ECONOMIC CHALLENGE Economic growth rate- 1.5% - world’s lowest The region’s 646 million people have a combined GNP of less than $150 billion, roughly the same as Belgium and its 10 million people. Population - growing at a rate of 2.6% annually, vs 1.7% for South America and 1.9% for South Asia

41 Medical Crises, including most HIV/AIDs in world

42 MEDICAL GEOGRAPHY Studies spatial aspects of disease and health Africa is an extraordinary laboratory. -- Disease incidence and diffusion -- Widespread nutritional deficiencies Millions suffer from: – malaria- river blindness – yellow fever- sleeping sickness – AIDS- bilharzia/schistosomiasis

43 Figure 17-A (b), p. 450

44 Endemic -- Exists in equilibrium with the population -- Many develop an immunity of sorts -- Saps energy, lowers resistance, shortens lives Epidemic -- Sudden outbreak at local, regional scale Pandemic -- Worldwide spread MEDICAL GEOGRAPHY

45 MALARIA WIDESPREAD INCIDENCE

46 SLEEPING SICKNESS Tsetse Fly WIDESPREAD INCIDENCE

47 Most of world’s remaining Animists –But missionaries spreading Christianity and Islam

48 The Roots of Religion Animism (Shamanism) - the belief that all objects, animals, and beings are “animated” or possess a spirit and a conscious life. Also called shamanism because of the prominence of a shaman. Such beliefs are common among hunter- gatherers. 10% of Africans follow such traditional ethnic religions. These beliefs are losing ground to Christianity and Islam throughout Africa. Nigerian Shaman

49 War and Failed Political Leadership Common –Few successful democracies; political violence common –Free press is rare –Conflicts limit foreign investment

50 Some of Africa’s Current Dictators Robert Mugabe, Zimbabwe Age 80. In power since 1980. Breaking up white- owned farms. Nepotism. King Mswati III, Swaziland Age 35. In power since 1986. Lavish lifestyle. Poor subjects. 11 wives. 3 Fiances. 25 children. Teodoro Obiang Nguema, Equatorial Guinea Age 61. In power since 1979 coup. Corrupt.

51 Fig. 17-22, p. 476 Idi Amin. Uganda. Reign: 1971 -1979. Famous for his brutality Mobuto Sese Seko. Zaire (now Democratic Republic of Congo). Reign: 1965 -1997. Famous for kleptocracy (billions stolen)

52 The Sahel – 7 countries

53 Sahel - “Shore” (7 Countries) “Sahel” = “Shore” –Southern edge of the Sahara Semi-Desert –Between Savanna & Desert Grasses and small trees

54 Sahel Environment Semi-Desert –Grass and small trees

55 Desertification of the Sahel Expansion of Sahara, due to: –Drought –Overgrazing

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57 Cultural Transition of the Sahel

58 North of Sahel – Light-skinned Muslims

59 South of Sahel Black Africans Christian or animist

60 People in the Sahel Mostly Muslim, Black Africans

61 West Africa – 9 Countries

62 Environment Savanna in north Tropical Rainforests on Coast –90% Deforested

63 Southern Benin

64 W. African Agricultural Exports Peanuts in savanna north Cocoa & Palm Oil in rainier south

65 W. African Agricultural Exports Palm Oil –Ingredient of Food & Soap Cash crop economies are a major problem throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Cocoa –Ivory Coast: 50% World’s Supply

66 West African Empires, 800-1800 AD Mali Kingdom –Capital: Timbuktu, on southern edge of Sahara Ancient Trade & Educational Center Niger River Pop = 100,000 in 1500 AD Pop = 15,000 now

67 Niger River

68 Liberia Founded 1847 by freed American Slaves Capital: Monrovia named for… Civil War: since 1980 war – child soldiers

69 Nigeria  Largest pop. In Africa  3 Main Concentrations  SW  SE  North

70 Nigeria  250+ Ethnic Groups –Yoruba in SW Lagos – Nigeria’s largest city –Ibo in SE Niger River Delta – Hausa & Fulani in N Muslims Kano – Nigeria’s main Muslim city Shari’a (Islamic Law)

71 Nigeria Oil –90% of export income –Niger Delta –Coastal oil to Angola

72 Nigeria  Ethnic Tensions & Violence  Civil War in late 1960s  Ibo unsuccessfully tried to secede 1 million deaths Capital moved –From Lagos to Abuja Abuja – in “neutral” region

73 Central Africa 7 Countries

74 Central Africa Environment Tropical Rainforests –20% of World’s Remaining TRFs Rapid Deforestation

75 Central Africa Resources Coastal Oil D. R. Congo –Rich in Metals & Diamonds –Old name = “Zaire” –Terrible Corruption & Warfare

76 EAST AFRICA 5 Countries Landscape –Plateau Serengeti Plain (Tan.) –Rift Valleys –Lake Victoria

77 Nairobi, Kenya 5000’ Elevation “Year-round spring” Industrial Center of East Africa

78 Agriculture Tea in Kenya

79 Rwanda & Burundi Ex-Belgian Colonies

80 RWANDA 2 Tribes –Hutu (Majority) –Tutsi (Minority) 1994 Genocide against Tutsi –Million killed in 100 days

81 RWANDA Mountain Gorillas –650 in world

82 Horn of Africa 4 Countries –Ethiopia –Eritrea –Djibouti –Somalia

83 Landscape Hot, Dry Coastal Lowlands –Muslim Ethiopian Highlands –Christian C M

84 Ethiopian Highlands Canyons carved by water

85 Historical Background Ethiopian Kingdom –Adopted Christianity, 300 AD

86 Ethiopia Difficult Environment: –Deep Canyons  Isolated Villages –Crops Depend on Erratic Rainfall –Prolonged Drought  Famine

87 Southern Africa

88 Minerals in Southern Africa Zambia Zimbabwe Rep. So. Africa –Gold –Diamonds –Platinum –Coal

89 Rep. of South Africa Environment –Middle Latitudes –5000’ Plateau –Mild Temps (60-70F)

90 Drakensberg Mtns. RSA

91 Republic of South Africa Blacks = 75% Whites = 14% Coloreds = 8% (mixed race) Asians = 3% (mostly Indians)

92 History of RSA Dutch Settlers Cape Town, est. 1652 –“Boers” –Descendents: “Afrikaners” Afrikaans Language British control, 1800s

93 History of RSA Independence, 1910 –White Rule –Apartheid 1994 Elections –Nelson Mandela

94 Cities of South Africa Johannesburg & Pretoria –“High Veld” Region –Grassy Plateau Durban –Warm & Rainy Like Florida Cape Town –Mediterranean Climate Like So. Cal.

95 Johannesburg Largest City… Built amid…

96 Durban Zulus Sugarcane Plantations Asians (Indians)

97 Durban Beach Resorts Surfing

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99 Cape Town Legislative Capital Beautiful Location

100 Cape Town Area - Mediterranean Climate Winter rain (June – Sept) Spring wildflowers

101 Vineyards & Wineries

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103 Madagascar Settled 2000 years ago by…

104 Madagascar Mtns Trade Winds… –Rainforests 90% Cut Down

105 Madagascar Unique Plants & Animals –90% are Endemic… –Lemurs

106 Madagascar Endangered Species –Lemurs –Habitat Destruction…


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