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Chapter 4 – Prenatal Development and Birth

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1 Chapter 4 – Prenatal Development and Birth
The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8e by Kathleen Stassen Berger Chapter 4 – Prenatal Development and Birth PowerPoint Slides developed by Martin Wolfger and Michael James Ivy Tech Community College-Bloomington Reviewed by Raquel Henry Lone Star College, Kingwood

2 Prenatal Growth Three main periods of prenatal development
Germinal Period (1st two weeks after conception): rapid cell division and beginning of cell differentiation Embryonic Period (3rd through 8th week): basic forms of all body structures develop Fetal Period (9th week until birth): fetus grows in size and matures in functioning

3 The Germinal Period Zygote begins duplication and division within hours of conception Development of the placenta Organ that surrounds the developing embryo Sustains life via the umbilical chord Implantation (about 10 days after conception) Developing organism burrows into the placenta that lines the uterus

4 The Germinal Period

5 The Embryonic Period Embryo 3rd through the 8th week after conception
Begins when the primitive streak appears down the middle of the cell mass Primitive streak becomes the neural tube and later the brain and spinal column Eyes, ears, nose, and mouth form Heart begins to pulsate Extremities develop and webbed fingers and toes separate

6 The Embryonic Period

7 The Fetal Period Fetus 9th week after conception until birth
Genitals form and sex hormones cause differences brain organization Cephalocaudal and proximodistal growth Heartbeat detectable via stethoscope Cortex is not fully mature at birth Brain at birth is biggest part of baby Term: ultrasound

8 The Fetal Period Age of viability
Age at which a preterm newborn may survive outside the womb with medical care About 22 weeks after conception Brain is able to regulate basic body functions Chances of survival increase with each day after the 22-week mark

9 The Fetal Period

10 Birth Fetal brain signals the release of hormones to trigger the mother’s uterine muscles Labor begins Average duration for first babies: 12 hours Quicker labor for later babies Apgar scale Quick assessment of newborn’s heart rate, breathing, muscle tone, color, and reflexes Completed twice (1 minute and 5 minutes after birth) Score of 0, 1, or 2 in each category Desired score: 7 (total) or above

11 A Normal, Uncomplicated Birth

12 Birth

13 Medical Assistance Cesarean Section (c-section) Surgical birth
Fetus can be removed quickly Rates and reasons for c-sections vary Lower rates in poorer countries Higher rates in richer countries 1/3 of births in the United States Less trauma for the newborn but slower recovery for the mother Subsequent cesarean deliveries may be necessary


15 Newborn Survival Infant mortality has decreased due to better medical care 1900: 5% Today: <1 in 200 Childbirth has become safer for mothers Death rate in poorest nations: 1 in 20 women Excessive medical care also has disadvantages Increase in unnecessary c-sections is associated with higher rate of low-birth weight babies

16 Traditional and Modern Birthing Practices
Home births Hospital births Doula Woman who helps with labor, delivery, breast-feeding, and newborn care May be related to lower rate of cesarean sections

17 Harmful Substances Teratogens Behavioral teratogens
Substances and conditions that can impair prenatal development and result in birth defects or even death Not all teratogens can be avoided Structural abnormalities are obvious at birth Behavioral teratogens Affect the child’s developing brain Developmental retardation, hyperactivity, and learning disabilities Effects do not become evident for months or years

18 Risk Analysis Knowing which risks are worth taking
How to minimize chance of harm Teratology: science of risk analysis Threshold effect: when a teratogen is harmless in small doses but becomes harmful at a certain level (threshold)


20 Applying the Research Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
A cluster of birth defects including abnormal facial characteristics, slow physical growth, and retarded mental development May occur in the child of a woman who drinks alcohol while pregnant

21 Low Birthweight Low birthweight (LBW) Very low birthweight (VLBW)
Less than 2,500 grams (5½ pounds) at birth United States Steady increase in LBW over the past 25 years 8% of newborns are seriously underweight More susceptible to teratogens, higher birth risks, lower survival rate Very low birthweight (VLBW) Under 1,500 grams (3 pounds, 5 ounces) at birth Extremely low birthweight (ELBW) Under 1,000 grams (2 pounds, 3 ounces) at birth

22 Preterm or Slow Growing?
Birth that occurs at 35 or fewer weeks after conception Usually associated with low birthweight Small for gestational age (SGA) Birthweight is significantly lower than expected, given the time since conception Suggests impairment throughout prenatal development and serious problems

23 Complications During Birth
Cerebral palsy: -damage to the brain’s motor centers -speech and/or muscles are impaired Anoxia: -lack of oxygen -over time can cause brain damage or death

24 The Newborn Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS)
A test that measures responsiveness records 46 behaviors, including 20 reflexes

25 Moving and Perceiving The Newborn
The first movements are not skills but reflexes, involuntary responses to a particular stimulus.

26 The Newborn Some reflexes aid survival breathing thrashing shivering
sucking rooting swallowing spitting up

27 The Newborn Other reflexes signify normal functioning:
Babinski reflex. When feet are stroked, their toes fan upward. Stepping reflex. When held upright with feet touching a flat surface, infants move their legs as if to walk. Swimming reflex. When laid horizontally on their stomachs, infants stretch out their arms and legs. Palmar grasping reflex. When something touches infants’ palms, they grip it tightly. Moro reflex. When someone startles them, infants fling their arms outward and then bring them together on their chests, as if to hold on to something, while crying with wide-open eyes.

28 The Father’s Role Supportive father helps mother stay healthy
Father can decrease or increase mother’s stress (affects fetus) Most fathers are helpful to their pregnant wives Two way street: Pregnant mothers should support, involve, and encourage fathers

29 The Father’s Role Couvade: symptoms of pregnancy and birth experienced by fathers Parental alliance: cooperation between a mother and a father based on their mutual commitment to their children the parents support each other in their shared parental roles.

30 Postpartum Depression
Sadness and inadequacy felt by 8-15% of new mothers in the days and weeks after giving birth Symptoms range from baby blues to postpartum psychosis baby care feels burdensome and thoughts of mistreating the infant may exist Paternal involvement can have beneficial effect Some fathers are depressed themselves Causes for Postpartum Depression vary

31 Bonding Parent-Infant Bond
The strong, loving connection that forms as parents hold, examine, and feed the newborn Early skin-to-skin contact is not essential Cross-fostering in monkeys Newborns are removed from their mothers and raised by another female or male Strong and beneficial relationship sometimes develops

32 Bonding Birth complications can have lingering impact on later life
Mothers and fathers should help with early caregiving if newborn must stay in the hospital Kangaroo care Child-care technique in which the mother of a LBW infant holds the baby between her breasts Allows baby to hear mother’s heartbeat and feel her body heat Research confirms beneficial effects

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