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Effects of Iron deficiency on Physical and Mental functions in Children. Dr. S.P. Srivastava.

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Presentation on theme: "Effects of Iron deficiency on Physical and Mental functions in Children. Dr. S.P. Srivastava."— Presentation transcript:

1 Effects of Iron deficiency on Physical and Mental functions in Children. Dr. S.P. Srivastava

2 Normal Child No Iron Deficiency

3

4 Functions of Iron Formulation of hemoglobin Formulation of hemoglobin Formulation of cytochrome myoglobin Formulation of cytochrome myoglobin Binding O 2 to RBC and transport Binding O 2 to RBC and transport Regulation of Body temperature Regulation of Body temperature Muscle activity Muscle activity Catacholamine metabolism Catacholamine metabolism Immune system – T cell antibodies Immune system – T cell antibodies Brain Dev & function Brain Dev & function Depressed thyroid function Depressed thyroid function

5 Iron Deficiency (6-24 months) Difficulty with language Difficulty with language Poor Motor Co-ordination and balance Poor Motor Co-ordination and balance Poorer rating on attention Poorer rating on attention Poor Responsiveness Poor Responsiveness Poor Performance of motor Poor Performance of motor

6 Physical Growth and performance Weight gain, growth velocity Weight gain, growth velocity Further compounded associated with Further compounded associated with infection anorexia infection anorexia Poor work capacity Poor work capacity Endurance, work capability Endurance, work capability Rapid gain of weight & endurance with Rapid gain of weight & endurance with iron therapy. iron therapy.

7 Mental and psychomor dev Poor attentiveness Poor attentiveness Poor memory Poor memory Poor academic performance vocabulary, Poor academic performance vocabulary, reading, writing, arithmetic reading, writing, arithmetic Disruptive, irritable, restlessness Disruptive, irritable, restlessness Poor performance in test Poor performance in test

8 Iron Acquisition In Brain

9 The Basal Ganglia (Frontal Section)

10 Iron In Brain

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12 Concentration of Iron in Brain Highest at birth Highest at birth Decrease at weaning Decrease at weaning Increase at onset of Myelination Increase at onset of Myelination Maximum at expression of T f mRNA Maximum at expression of T f mRNA

13 Iron Concentration In Brain 25% 50% 75% 100% Birth 2 Years 10 Years Adult Human Maximum Myelination

14 Iron def, Infection, physical growth T cell and antibodies diminishes T cell and antibodies diminishes Cell mediated immunity defective Cell mediated immunity defective Killing bacteria capabilities poor Killing bacteria capabilities poor Capacity of leucocyte defense poor Capacity of leucocyte defense poor

15 Iron and Neurotransmitor Dopaminergic system dev in early post natal life Dopaminergic system dev in early post natal life Rapid increase in number and density of Rapid increase in number and density of DA transporter, receptor DA transporter, receptor Monoamine for axonal growth and synapse Monoamine for axonal growth and synapse formation formation Neurotransmission

16 Iron and Neurotransmitters Enzyme involve in N.T are – Tryptorhan Enzyme involve in N.T are – Tryptorhan hydrolase (Serotonin) hydrolase (Serotonin) Tyrosin Hydolase (Ne. and Da) Tyrosin Hydolase (Ne. and Da) Cp factor for Ribonucleotide reductase Cp factor for Ribonucleotide reductase Electron Transfer for lipid metabolism Electron Transfer for lipid metabolism Brain Energy Brain Energy

17 Restless leg syndrome

18 Iron Deficiency & Cognitive Development 2 to 7 years -Preoperation period Birth to 2 years - Sensorimotor Period 7 to 12 years -concrete operations Above 12 years -Formal operations

19 65% Common Behavioral Midbrain Iron, DA Transmitter & D1 Receptors 35% Anxity – DA Transporter, D2 Rece Improve with Iron Behavioral and Emotion

20 Critical Period Irriversible effect on nerve conduction in iron Irriversible effect on nerve conduction in iron deficiency deficiency Timing of iron deficiency is of great importance Timing of iron deficiency is of great importance Lead to toddler developmental delay if iron def earlier Lead to toddler developmental delay if iron def earlier Sequence – Cell migration significant myelination Sequence – Cell migration significant myelination cellular differentiation increase expression of cellular differentiation increase expression of neuropeptides neuropeptides

21 Study Scales BS.ID – Bayley Scale of infant Dev BS.ID – Bayley Scale of infant Dev IBR – Infant behavior records IBR – Infant behavior records MDI – Mental dev index MDI – Mental dev index PDI Psychomotor dev index PDI Psychomotor dev index Wise – Wechsler intelligence scale of Wise – Wechsler intelligence scale of childhood childhood

22 Stages of Iron Deficiency Decrease Iron Storage Decrease Iron Storage Latent Deficiency serum feritin - < Latent Deficiency serum feritin - < 10mcg/L 10mcg/L Iron deficiency – 0.80 to 1.8 mg/L Iron deficiency – 0.80 to 1.8 mg/L

23 Iron Value per 100gm for Common Food FoodIron (mg)FoodIron (mg) Rice6.4Bengal G Leave23.8 Rice Pufed4.6 Coriander L18.5 Wheat11.5 Mustard L16.5 Bengal gram10.2 Spinach10.9 Bengal G Dal9.1 Ginger10.5 Rajma5.8 Muster Seed17.9 Soyaneam11.5 Date7.3 Milk.1-.3 Fish Dried20-25 Gagery10.5 Fish Fresh1-4 Apple0.66 Egg2.1 Banana0.36Mutton2.5 Amranth25.5 Honey0.69

24 Iron deficiency is major public health problem It is an essential nutrition not only for normal growth health and Survival of children but also for their development and congnitive Functioning iron deficiency anemia is associated with significantly poorer performance on Psychomotar and mental development scale and behavioral rating is in infant and children. Iron supplimentation improves mental development score modestly and improve physical capacity and endurance.0 Conclusion

25 Thanks Dr. S.P. Srivastava


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