Presentation on theme: "THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION The shift, beginning in England in the 18 th century, from making goods by hand to making them by machine."— Presentation transcript:
THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION The shift, beginning in England in the 18 th century, from making goods by hand to making them by machine.
England before the Industrial Revolution
THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 1.The Agricultural Revolution
Population Explosion England - huge increase in population in the late 1760s. More people need more food. The French blockade meant that the British had to produce more food. Large landowners chase small tenant farmers (renters) off their lands to try to make the most profit from the increased price of food.
THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 1.The Agricultural Revolution A.Enclosure Movement i.landlords fenced in common land and used new farming technology ii.peasants became poorer
Britain’s Agricultural Revolution The large landowners consolidate their property into enclosures – land that is walled off. Increased technology and new inventions make the British farmers the most productive in the world. Fewer farmers can now produce more food than ever before. This allows the rural population to feed a growing urban population.
The landlords started crop rotation. They would change the crops that they would plant in different fields to make sure that the fields retained their nutrients. New crops such as corn and potatoes were introduced that increased the amount of food that Britain produced. The changes in the way the people in Britain farmed resulted in huge increases in the amount of food that the land produced.
THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 1.The Agricultural Revolution A.Enclosure Movement i.landlords fenced in common land and used new farming technology ii.peasants became poorer B.Crop Rotation i.fields regained nutrients by planting different crops C. Other Discoveries i.seed drill planted seeds quickly ii.new crops: corn and potato D.Results in more food and population increase
Enclosure results in Urbanization The former tenant farmers that were chased off the lands during the period of enclosure were forced to move into villages and towns. Many found work at home making textile products (making wool, flax, and cotton into cloth). Capitalists (businessmen) started businesses by taking wool and flax to the cottages (homes) of peasant spinners. After the wool and flax were spun carded, the capitalists would then take it to the weavers.
2.Cottage Industry and Early Capitalism A.Merchants Role i.supplied materials – wool and cotton ii.transported supplies iii.merchants make profits B.Capitalism i.private ownership, free competition, and profit ii.cottage industry early example of capitalism C.Effects of the Cottage Industry i.big profits for new class of merchants ii.alternative source of income for peasants
The Factory System What do you see here? What are the machines doing? What are the workers doing? What is the boy in the machine doing? What might be the advantages of factory spinning over cottage-industry spinning?
Entrepreneurs decided to combine all of the factors of production into one place workers + r aw materials + m achines + b uilding = factory system
The Factory System
3.Textile Industry and Factory System A.Textile Industry Invented i.cottages couldn’t keep up with demand for textiles ii.new machines make textiles quicker iii.cotton gin separated seeds from cotton B.Rise of the Factory i.new machines, often too big for homes, were put in factories ii.located near power source: coal, iron, water C.Effects of Textile Factories in Britain i.Amount of textiles increased and prices lowered ii.most villagers leave home to find work in urban factories
Steam power Steam power works by forcing steam from low pressure to high pressure.
The Steam Engine
4.Steam Engine: Energy for the Industrial Revolution A.Steam Engine built for increasing need for power B.Steam forced from low to high pressure produces power C.Steam Engine improved mining which increased metals
Iron and Coal: Energy of the Industrial Revolution many workers die because of dangerous machinery British engineers learned that coal could be used for energy and carbon. It burned slowly and had the carbon needed to make iron. The use of iron was essential in the industrial revolution. Iron was a very hard metal that could be used to make strong machines. The problem was that iron needed carbon added to it to be flexible and durable. Coal could also be used to produce steam power. The British used iron to build the world’s most powerful navy. This navy controlled the world’s oceans using coal for energy.
Coal and Iron
5.Iron and Coal: Energy for the Industrial Revolution A.The Need for Iron i.farming tools, new factory machinery, railways B.The Need for Coal i.steam engines powered by coal C.Effect of Iron and Coal i.Britain produced more iron than rest of the world ii.coal powered Britain’s enormous navy
Transportation Before the industrial revolution merchants used to transport goods by horse or mule cart over poor roads. Merchants had to wait for good weather to travel. The industrial revolution needed quicker, cheaper, and more reliable forms of transportation. In 1829 Stephenson invented the steam locomotive. Soon railroads covered Britain. Goods and people could travel quickly and cheaply across the country. In addition to railroads, the British also constructed canals and better roads to meet the demands of the new businesses.
6.Transportation A.Need for Better Transportation i.increased production needed quick and cheap transportation B.Inventions i.roads, canals, railroad C.Effects of Railroads i.cheaper transportation increased production and profits ii.helped other industries
Britain starts the Industrial Revolution Natural Resources System of navigable rivers and canals. surrounded by harbors coal, iron, and other fuel food sources Population A population explosion gave England plenty of workers Large population also meant a large market Technology Inventors that changed working life Roads and railroads were invented in England and helped transportation Money England had a bank that loaned entrepreneurs money to start companies.
7.Why Britain Led the Industrial Revolution A.Geography i.natural resources - iron and coal ii.separation from the European continent kept them out of wars B.Government i.trade encouraged and population allowed to relocate ii.helped build canals and roads C.Social Factors i.British society less rigid than other European countries
Industrialization and the World The problem with industrialization was that it demanded a lot of natural resources. England could not continue to provide all of the natural resources the growing factories demanded. The people of England could not continue to keep buying all of the goods that the factories produced. The answer was to take over the world and bring in natural resources from other countries and sell them factory- made goods.
7.Why Britain Led the Industrial Revolution A.Geography i.natural resources - iron and coal ii.separation from the European continent kept them out of wars B.Government i.trade encouraged and population allowed to relocate ii.helped build canals and roads C.Social Factors i.British society less rigid than other European countries D.Colonial Empire i.supplied raw material and provided market for goods E.Advantages of Industrializing First i.no other competition for manufactured goods monopoly on technology
Development of New Cities
Effects of the Industrial Revolution rapid urbanization led to crowded and dirty cities that were unhealthy
destroyed social order whole families are forced to work in factories parents have to work two jobs and can not feed and raise children – many live on the streets and join gangs
Effects of the Industrial Revolution many poor families need their children to work long and dangerous hours at jobs that pay very little
workers eventually join unions to fight for better wages, shorter working days, and safer working conditions
Positive Effects a new middle class developed to serve the interests of the owners shopping – more goods were made for much cheaper and many people could afford goods that they would never have been able to before medical care and city planning improved new inventions improved the quality of life