2Questions What is the overall goal of any health system? What would they like to see to confirm that the health status of the population is improving?Beside providing services, is health system concerned about issues of access and coverage/utilization? If yes, how?Do you feel part of the health system?How do you know that health system is providing services and achieving its objectives?Does health information system help in assessing and monitoring health system performance on a regular basis?
3Basics EVERYONE COUNTS Better Information. Better Decisions. Better Health.What do you think about it?
4Continue..Imagine a world where no death goes unrecorded, where a baby’s first cry is heard around the globe.Imagine a world where understanding one person’s illness helps prevent the sickness of many.This is a world with sound health information systems.
5Continue..Reliable and timely information is the foundation of public health.Countries cannot afford to be without health information system, because they will become poorer and poorer.The world is getting more complex, and so are our public health challenges.
6Continue..Health information systems play a vital role in improving the quality and efficiency of healthcare by:Ensuring access to essential informationDelivery of essential information.Health Information Systems can be a powerful tool to make healthcare delivery more effective and far more efficient.
7BackgroundFrom the early 1960s through the 1970s, a new era of computing in healthcare emerged.A large group of hospitals in the western world agreed on the necessity to advance a patient information management system.These hospitals heavily invested money, time, and effort to move toward computerization
8Seeing the sudden surge of interest among the hospitals, some commercial companies also joined in an effort to support patient information systems.During the late 1970s and early 1980s, computerization began to be seen as a magic bullet for controlling and managing the large medical and other administrative data processed on a daily basis.
9Medical data range from demographics of patients to clinical and health services data to epidemiological and health population statistics.Nowadays, it is hard to imagine healthcare without Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
10Why health information system? Good management is a prerequisite for increasing the efficiency of health services.Improved health information system is clearly linked to good management.Information is crucial at all management levels of the health services from periphery to the centre.It is required by policymakers, managers, health care providers, community health workers.
11DefinitionsSystem - Any collection of components that work together to achieve a common objective.Health System - All the activities whose primary purpose is to promote, restore or maintain health.Information - Meaningful collection of facts or data.Information System - Systems that provide specific information support to the decision-making process at each level of an organization.
12Health Information System (HIS) - A set of components and procedures organized with the objective of generating information which will improve health care management decisions at all levels of the health system.OrAn integrated effort to collect, process, report and use health information and knowledge to influence policy-making, programme action and research
13The ultimate objective of health information system is not just “to gain information” but “to improve action”
15Some of the terminologies related to HIS Health/Medical Informatics and TelemeticsHealth information technology (HIT).Electronic medical record (EMR), Electronic health record (EHR), Electronic patient record (EPR).
16Classification of health information systems Characteristics1. Patient centeredinformation systemsManage comprehensive patient care information such as medical records, appointment scheduling, theatre management.2. Clinical informationsystems (CIS)Perform specific tasks including collection of specific data for patient care, research, management, planning and maintenance of national data repositoriesCIS are used for administrative support, patient data collection, decision support, image analysis, monitoring, reporting, assessment and research
17Information SystemsCharacteristics3. Laboratoryinformation systemsIn high demand when a large number of tests generate large data. Samples are analyzed fully automatically, and the results are computer generatedSupport clinician to analyze trends to assess treatment effects4. Pharmacy informationsystemsInclude functions such as keeping patients’ medication records, checking prescriptions, and providing drug prescriptions and administration to physicians and nurses.
18Information SystemsCharacteristics5. Hospital informationsystemsSupport healthcare activities at the operational, tactical and strategic levelsEncompass patient management, administration, facilities management and medical applicationsContain database systems, data communication facilities.6. TelemedicineFacilitates exchange between primary care physicians and specialists as well as patients from disperse locationsAllows physicians to practice medicine at a distance
19OBJECTIVES OF HIS1. RAPIDLY DETECT AND RESPOND TO HEALTH PROBLEMS AND EPIDEMICS2. MONITOR TRENDS IN HEALTH STATUS AND CONTINUALLY ADDRESS HEALTH-CARE PRIORITIES3. EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERVENTIONS AND SERVICE COVERAGE4. ENSURE THAT RESOURCES ARE CORRECTLY TARGETED TO THE AREAS AND GROUPS OF GREATEST NEED5. EVALUATE THE QUALITY OF HEALTH INTERVENTIONS
201. RAPIDLY DETECT AND RESPOND TO HEALTH PROBLEMS AND EPIDEMICS To ensure that each health agency is rapidly alerted to a suspected outbreak, it is necessary to set up an early warning and response system (EWARS) from the onset of an emergency.As soon as the situation permits this function should be integrated within the broader objectives of an HIS.This is one of the most immediate and specialized functions of the HIS
212. MONITOR TRENDS IN HEALTH STATUS AND CONTINUALLY ADDRESS HEALTH-CARE PRIORITIES Monitoring health status allows health managers to observe trends in the health profile of a population, detect the emergence of new health problems and continually address public health priorities.This is closely integrated with timely dissemination and sharing of information with field partners, UN agencies, Ministries of Health (MoH) and donors.
22Mortality data are collected from health facilities, community health programmes, and referral hospitals.Morbidity data on injuries, health conditions and diseases are collected from health facilities providing outpatient services, inpatient wards, nutrition centers, mother-child health (MCH) clinics, and community health workers.Age, sex and cause-specific data allow planners to identify priority areas and groups within the population and determine whether programmes are equitable and resources effectively allocated.
233. EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERVENTIONS AND SERVICE COVERAGE If the utilization rate is lower than expected, it may indicate inadequate access to health facilities (e.g. due to insecurity or poor capacity of health services).If the rate is higher, it may suggest over-utilisation due to a specific public health problem (e.g. infectious disease outbreak) or under- estimation of the target population.
24Coverage can be affected by the acceptability of the programme, location of delivery points, security for staff and those requiring treatment, waiting times, service quality and the extent of home visiting. E.g., prevalence of acute malnutrition and vaccination coverage.The HIS also allows health planners to monitor the impact of specific health interventions, by comparing health indicators in the population before and after the intervention was started.For example, monitoring a reduction in malaria incidence after implementation of vector control programme, or increase in vaccination coverage after a targeted community campaign.
254. ENSURE THAT RESOURCES ARE CORRECTLY TARGETED TO THE AREAS AND GROUPS OF GREATEST NEED Key stratifiers such as age, sex, refugee or host national status, and geographical location are used to describe trends and grant visibility to vulnerable groups.Special efforts should be made to ensure balanced male and female representation across all health service.Special consideration is also given to the refugees because they are important contributions to numerators such as consultation rates, bed occupancy, and drugs and usage of other consumables.
26Appropriate disaggregation is also important to prioritise high-risk groups within specific health programmes.For example, the under 18 age group is given particular attention within Reproductive Health and HIV/AIDS programmes to emphasize the unique reproductive and sexual health needs of young people.
275. EVALUATE THE QUALITY OF HEALTH INTERVENTIONS Health programmes should continually monitor service quality through measures of community participation, programme acceptability (e.g. the rate of defaulting) and programme coverage.Rates of hospitalisation, outpatient service utilisation and admission and discharge can also provide useful indicators of the appropriateness of health seeking behaviour in a community
28Default rates can be high when a programme is not accessible to the population. Accessibility may be affected by the distance of the treatment point from the community, a lack of security and the quality of the care provided.Individual causes of readmission, defaulting and failure to recover should be investigated on an ongoing basis.