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November 17, 2009 Topic: “Changing lives” Language focus: Present perfect simple: a ‘bridge’ between past & present Duration form with ‘for’ & ‘since’

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Presentation on theme: "November 17, 2009 Topic: “Changing lives” Language focus: Present perfect simple: a ‘bridge’ between past & present Duration form with ‘for’ & ‘since’"— Presentation transcript:

1 November 17, 2009 Topic: “Changing lives” Language focus: Present perfect simple: a ‘bridge’ between past & present Duration form with ‘for’ & ‘since’ Present perfect or Past simple?

2 Look at the pictures and answer the questions: These products have one thing in common. What do you think it is?

3 2. When you buy products like these do you know a)which countries they come from? b)how much of the price goes to the growers?

4 Vocabulary practice 1 Read the information about the Fairtrade Foundation. Find words and phrases which mean: 1. promises 2. business agreement 3. poor countries that are trying to improve their economy 4. receive an advantage 5. countries with advanced economies Fairtrade guarantees a better deal for Third World producers Simply buying a Fairtrade product can help a village get clean water or children to go to school. Four and a half million farmers and their families, in 36 countries, benefit from Fairtrade. In general, global trade has made people in the rich developed countries richer and people in the poor developing countries poorer.

5 Answers Guarantees = promises Business agreement = deal Poor countries that are trying to improve their economy = developing countries or Third World countries Receive an advantage = benefit Countries with advanced economies = developed countries

6 Reading practice 1 Read the three texts again and answer the following questions: 1.What does Fairtrade guarantee to the people it helps? 2.Who does Fairtrade help? 3.Which countries has global trade helped most?

7 Answers 1.A better deal 2.Millions of farmers in 36 countries 3.The rich countries

8 Reading practice 2 Read the information and answer the questions. 1. When can companies use the name Fairtrade on their products? 2. What is a ‘social premium’? The Fairtrade Foundation permits companies whose products meet the international standards of Fairtrade to put the name ‘Fairtrade’ on their products. These products include coffee, tea, cocoa, and fresh fruit. Under the Fairtrade system the producers receive a fair price which includes extra money, called ‘social premium’, to help them improve their living and working conditions. Fairtrade gives them advance payments to help with production costs and long-term contracts so they can plan for the future.

9 Answers 1.When their products meet the international standards set by Fairtrade. 2.It is a fair price which includes extra money that help producers improve their living and working conditions. Look at the underlined word: what does it mean? very highvery low acceptable/appropriate

10 Listening practice Listen to an interview with the Executive Director of Fairtrade in the UK. Fill in the gaps.  Fairtrade started in ____ in the UK and in ____ in the Netherlands  At present it is in _____ countries, mostly in Western Europe, but also the USA, _______, Australia, New Zealand, and _______.  The first country in Eastern Europe to have Fairtrade is _________.  Producers can use the ‘social premium’ to improve their _________ and _________ conditions.  In the UK sales went up by _____% in ______.  Usually the price of a Fairtrade product is about ____ to _____% more than the average price.

11 Answers  Fairtrade started in 1992 in the UK and in 1988 in the Netherlands  At present it is in 17 countries, mostly in Western Europe, but also the USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan.  The first country in Eastern Europe to have Fairtrade is Hungary.  Producers can use the ‘social premium’ to improve their living and working conditions.  In the UK sales went up by 50% in  Usually the price of a Fairtrade product is about 10 to 20% more than the average price.

12 Vocabulary practice 2 These are sentences from the same interview. Match the underlined words in A with their meanings in B. 1.Since 1988 Fairtrade has expanded… 2.This has been a disaster… 3.They’ve built wells… 4.People are willing to pay a bit more… 5.To help people escape poverty… a. event that causes a lot of damage and problems b. being very poor c. got bigger d. happy, ready to do smth. e. deep holes in the ground from which you get water

13 Answers: 1 – c 2 – a 3 – e 4 – d 5 – b

14 Language focus 1 1. Fairtrade started in the Netherlands in In recent years the price of coffee, cocoa and bananas has fallen. 3. In the UK sales went up by 50% in Since 1988 Fairtrade has expanded into many other countries. What tenses are the sentences above? Which tense do we use for situations and actions that happened: a)at a definite time in the past? b)in a period of time from the past to the present?

15 Answers  Sentences 1 & 3: Past simple  Sentences 2 & 4: Present perfect simple  a= Past simple  b= Present perfect simple Another question for you : Which tense do we use with expressions like: a)in 2001, when…? b)Since 1988, in recent years?

16 Answers a)in 2001, when…? = Past simple b)Since 1988, in recent years? = Present perfect simple

17 Match sentences 1&2 with a suitable timeline. One is not suitable. 1.Fairtrade started in the Netherlands in In recent years the price of coffee, cocoa and bananas has fallen P A S T NOW PAST NOW PAST NOW 1 2 3

18 Answers Sentence 1 = timeline 1 Sentence 2 = timeline 2 Why is timeline 3 not suitable?

19 Answer Timeline 3 shows an event that lasted for a certain period of time in the past but that doesn’t affect the present.

20 Language practice 1 Complete these sentences with the correct time expression, a or b: 1. I made a research trip to Africa ________ a) a year agob) in the last six months 2. The price of coffee has fallen _______ a) in 1992b) every year since Rich countries have got richer and poor countries have got poorer a) in the 1990sb) in the last decade 4. Did sales of Fairtrade products increase _______? a) recentlyb) last year 5. How many producers has Fairtrade helped _______? a) since 1988b) between 1988 and 2000

21 Answers 1. I made a research trip to Africa ________ a) a year agob) in the last six months 2. The price of coffee has fallen _______ a) in 1992b) every year since Rich countries have got richer and poor countries have got poorer a) in the 1990sb) in the last decade 4. Did sales of Fairtrade products increase _______? a) recentlyb) last year 5. How many producers has Fairtrade helped _______? a) since 1988b) between 1988 and 2000

22 Language practice 2 Complete the extracts from a newspaper article about Fairtrade. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense. Since 1992 the price of cocoa beans _____ 1 (fall) by 50%. In the same period the price of a bar of chocolate _____ 2 (increase) by 65%, but the farmers who grow cocoa ____ 3 (not receive) a higher price for their crop. In the last decade the wages of workers on many banana plantations ______ 4 (decrease). In 1993 workers in Costa Rica ______ 5 (earn) $ 250 a month. In 1997 their wages _______ 6 (fall) to $ 187 and in 2001 they _______ 7 (go down) again - to only $ 160. In recent years global trade _______ 8 (make) it possible for the rich developed countries to buy their coffee, tea, cocoa, bananas, etc. from the country with the cheapest price, changing from one country to another. This _______ 9 (be) a disaster for whole communities in the developing world who ______ 10 (grow) the same crop for generations.

23 Answers Since 1992 the price of cocoa beans has fallen 1 by 50%. In the same period the price of a bar of chocolate has increased 2 by 65%, but the farmers who grow cocoa haven’t received 3 a higher price for their crop. In the last decade the wages of workers on many banana plantations have decreased 4. In 1993 workers in Costa Rica earned 5 $ 250 a month. In 1997 their wages fell 6 to $ 187 and in 2001 they went down 7 again - to only $ 160. In recent years global trade has made 8 it possible for the rich developed countries to buy their coffee, tea, cocoa, bananas, etc. from the country with the cheapest price, changing from one country to another. This has been 9 a disaster for whole communities in the developing world who have grown 10 the same crop for generations.

24 Why did you choose the Present perfect simple for gaps n. 1,2,3,4,8,9 and 10? Because the Present perfect simple is used to talk about ____________________. Why did you choose the Past simple for gaps n. 5,6 and 7? Because the Past simple is used to talk about ____________________.

25 Because the Present perfect simple is used to talk about past actions/situations in a time up to the present. Because the Past simple is used to talk about actions/situations that happened in the past and are now finished.

26 Further reflection on topic & language: You can find explanations and further practice on Present perfect simple and the contrast between Present perfect simple and Past simple on the following websites (the first comes with a video): astsimplevsperfect/simplepastvsperfect.htm erfect_simple.html#uso ar/ppvpast.htm You can find info on the Fairtrade Foundation and its activities


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