Presentation on theme: "OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY"— Presentation transcript:
1OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY FOR INFORMAL WORKERS“Social Protection in Africa:Sharing Experiences on the Informal Economy”EC & AU Commission Capacity Building Workshop10-11 March 2011, Nairobi, Kenya.Masuma MamdaniIHI
2WIEGOA global research and advocacy network, working in some 40 countries, promoting and advancing the interests of poorer informal workers, especially womenInformal work is normal and not residualDoes NOT represent MBOs, works with, builds & strengthens networks of informal worker organisations (MBOs).Gives MBOs visibility, recognition and validity
3EXPANDED DEFINITION OF THE INFORMAL ECONOMY (IE) IE - the diversified set of economic activities, enterprises, and workers that are not regulated or protected by the state.IE (or informal employment) includes:Self-employment in informal enterprises: self-employed persons in small unregistered or unincorporated enterprises, including:employersown account operatorsunpaid contributing family workersWage employment in informal jobs: wage workers without social protection through their work who are employed by formal or informal firms (and their contractors), by households, or by no fixed employer, including:non-standard employees of informal enterprisesnon-standard employees of formal enterprisescasual or day labourersindustrial outworkers (also called homeworkers)Notes:1. WIEGO promoted this expanded definition in collaboration with the ILO and the International Expert Group on Informal SectorStatistics (the Delhi Group): it was endorsed by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS) in 20032. T he elements of this expanded definition that were not included in the earlier ICLS 1993 definition of “informal sector” are in italicsNotes:# 1 – this new expanded definition of the “informal economy” or “informal employment” has been endorsed by the 2002 International Labour Conference and the 2003 International Conference of Labour Statisticians# 2 – the international definition of the “informal sector” that was adopted by the 1993 International Conference of Labour Statisticians included only those who work in informal enterprises (shown in italics above)
4Since 1923, the ICLS (International Conference of Labour Statisticians )has been convened every five years by the ILO. The ICLS is asked to make recommendations on selected topics of labour statistics, in the form of resolutions and guidelines, which are then approved by the Governing Body of the ILO before becoming part of the set of international standards on labour statistics.Informal Sector: employment and production that takes place in small, unincorporated and unregistered enterprises ((ICLS 1993) .Informal Employment: broader definition that includes informal employment inside and outside informal enterprises (whether carried out for formal sector enterprises or households (ICLS 2003)
5SEGMENTED LABOR MARKETS/ EMPLOYMENT STRUCTURES What do we mean by ‘segmentation’?Constraints exist which prevent individuals from moving into better employment opportunities (or improving the quality of existing employment)What causes ‘segmentation’?Discrimination, social norms, unequal wealth/assets, unpaid care responsibilities, lack of credit, lack of public goods/services, and more, etcWhy does ‘segmentation’ matter?Reinforces existing patterns of poverty and social exclusion.Issue of equity: gender, racial, caste segmentation.Issue of basic rights and the choices available to individuals.In summary: a social justice issue
6SEGMENTATION OF THE INFORMAL ECONOMY: BY SEX, AVERAGE EARNINGS, AND POVERTY RISK Predminantly women : high poverty risk, low earnings - base of the pyramid
7WORKING POOR IN THE INFORMAL ECONOMY In Unregulated Factories:garment makersshoe makersIn Small Workshops:scrap metal recyclersweaversgarment makers and embroidererspaper-bag makersOn Streets or In Open Spaces:street vendorspush-cart vendorsgarbage collectorsroadside barbersconstruction workersIn Fields, Pastures, and Forests:small farmersagricultural labourersshepherdsforest gatherersAt Home:garment workersembroiderersshoemakersartisans or craft producersassemblers of electronic partsWho is engaged in the informal economy:“plucky entrepreneurs” – to borrow Hernando de Soto’s termworking poor – as depicted in this slide
8EMPLOYMENT, INFORMALITY, POVERTY Employment - the most important way in which the benefits of growth can be shared.Most of the world’s poor – especially in developing countries – are working.Informal rather than formal employment is on the rise.The vast majority of the working poor – those who earn less than US$ 1 per day - earn their living in the informal economy where:average earnings are lowrisks are highPoverty reduction is not possible withoutIncreasing formal employment opportunities ANDIncreasing the assets and earnings ANDreducing the risks of those who work in the informal economy.90% of working Ghanaians >15 yrs, ….% of working Tanzanians over 15 yrs are employed informally
9INSTITUTIONAL REFORMS There is a need to address the following:Institutional “mismatch”: existing means of legal and social protections vs. reality of work todayPolicy biases & Power imbalances: in favor of capital vs. labor + larger firms vs. micro firms + formal labor vs. informal laborDownloading of risks: from lead firms -> suppliers -> intermediaries -> dependent workers and producers at the bottom of production and distribution chains
10POLICY AND INSTITUTIONAL REFORM: THROUGH DIALOGUE AND NEGOTIATION Key stakeholders: government, private sector, civil society (trade unions + MBOs of working poor + NGOs working on labor and employment issues)Tripartite dialogues and negotiations: should include MBOs of working poor as well as trade unions, employer associations, and governmentMulti-partite initiatives: initiatives involving multiple relevant stakeholders – such as Fair Trade and Ethical Trade initiatives and the Global Compact - should be encouraged and supportedMulti-partite reform processes: policy and legal reform processes should involve all relevant stakeholders including representatives of MBOs of the working poorPolicy reforms should be done through dialogues and negoiationsCoops = large and growing share of self-employment, especially own account work
11Social Protection: The Context Vast majority of poor who work informally:precarious & high risk exposurehave no social security coverage to protect against short term risks or life-time contingenciescannot afford private insurance, have little access to social insurancePoorer people live and work in poor communities, where it is hard to insure against riskIn developing countries:state systems of social insurance do not target informal workers, wage employed or self-employedstate systems of social assistance for poorer and vulnerable people do not target able bodied people of working age
12SOCIAL PROTECTION: DIFFERENT STRATEGIES FOR DIFFERENT SECTORS Evidence from a) value chain research and b) risk analysis of place of work and c) analyses of existing social protection schemes:different elements of the ‘welfare mix’ may be more or less appropriate for different types of workers
13SOCIAL PROTECTION: DIFFERENT STRATEGIES FOR DIFFERENT SECTORS Street and market vendors:Focus on local government (not national government) policiesEncourage infrastructural service delivery to reduce risk AND increase productivity AND protect both informal workers and the publicDomestic workers:more potential for integrating into existing labour policy and legislation in line with ‘extend social protection’ campaign
14SOCIAL PROTECTION: DIFFERENT STRATEGIES FOR DIFFERENT SECTORS Industrial outworkers:Encourage infrastructural delivery to private homesExtend employer/ owner-of-capital insurance to include private homesIntegrate social protection for informal workers into trade agreements/ codes of conductWaste-pickers:negotiate with municipalities/private sector for provision of safety equipment and reduction of hazards at the place of workprovide access for workers to local government/private sector social provision – health services and health insurance, training courses, educational bursaries
15MAINSTREAMING SOCIAL PROTECTION FOR INFORMAL WORKERS: THE CASE OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (OHS)VISIONThe integration of the working conditions and health status of poorer informal workers, andThe inclusion of informal work places, into the discipline and practice of occupational health and safety
16OHS FOR INFORMAL WORKERS How to re-think OHS as a more inclusive discipline, for different types of informal workers?What institutional reform would be necessary – at national and local government level - to reach more workers?How can informal workers be integrated in inclusive and sustainable platforms for negotiation and policy development?
17OHS FOR INFORMAL WORKERS: THE VISION - HOW? Voice: Support/assist MBOs of informal workers in shaping focused demands for OHS interventions and in negotiating for policy change and implementationVisibility: Integrate module on OHS for informal workers into Labour Force Surveys; improve the country-based statistics on occupational hazards and injuries to regulating bodies such as the ILOValidity: Modify legal and institutional barriers to the inclusion of informal workers; develop a model for expanded and integrated curriculum for OHS for informal workers into mainstream public health schools
18OHS PROGRAMME DESIGNAfrica (Ghana, Tanzania), Asia (two sites in India), Latin America – Brazil, PeruFocus on different occupational groups – including street vendors, homebased workers, informal recycling workers, domestic workers, agricultural workers, seaweed farmers
19Understanding the Context RESEARCHUnderstanding the ContextPaper 1: Size and Shape of the Informal EconomyPaper 2: Institutional Mapping and AnalysisParticipatory research on risks and hazards with MBOsFocus groups discussions, mobility mapping, time and motion studies, household/ enterprise interviews, photography, health checklistsInstitutional Mapping and Analysis - legislation, national/local govt domain, who controls the physical environment where informal workers are active, training institutions and curricula, platforms/forums for involvement of informal workers in discussions of work conditions and work improvements
20IMPROVING DATA ABOUT RISKS AND HAZARDS IN INFORMAL WORK Improved statistics on occupational injury and disease for informal workersWork with National Statistics BodiesLabour force survey modules – pilot in two countriesIdentify gaps in procedures for accident reporting
21TANZANIA: DATA ON OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES Available data on occupational injuries are hugely underestimatedReporting is limited to the workers covered by the system- those largely working in the formal sector - does not include most of those working in the informal sector, as well as in the agricultural sector
22TANZANIA: DATA SYSTEMS Opportunities for strengthening the routine collection and monitoring of progress, structure and scale of the informal economy as well as pertinent OHS indicators (through targeted (and nested) questions in periodic surveys (HBS, LFS, DHS, census) at national, as well as at district/council level?Coordination of ongoing data collection activities?Strengthening the role of Municipalities or Councils at the Local Government (LG) level in the management of OHS - facilitate information as well as provide national and local decision makers with insights into the complexity of OHS affairs.
23Limited capacity to enforce the many laws and regulations and ensure H&S at the workplace : few inspectors, lack of other trained staff, transport facilities and other essential resource: around 4,000 workplaces are registered out of an estimated total of 50,000 workplaces in mainland TanzaniaEnvironmental hazards are widespread, especially in the informal sector and in small and medium-sized companies where the majority of the work force is employed.Workers are often unaware about OHS issues and remain unprotected from occupational accidents and diseases
24TanzaniaExisting labour laws are designed to cover most Tanzanian workers, including many of those in the informal economy. However, informal sector workers on the whole, still tend not to benefit from the legislation.Need to enhance the implementation of the labour laws - in the formal and the informal economy => calls for an effective labour administration and inspection service.
25TANZANIAMany protective laws, policies, programmes & projects,Involving multiple state and non-state actorsScattered, ill-coordinated and the general impact of these has been limited.It is therefore not just about building new systems and new programmes. It is also about assessing the effectiveness or rather weaknesses of existing systems and programmes.The issue is not always of more money but better use of available resources
26SURVEY OF OHS SYSTEMS IN EA Legislation and Government authorities are relatively well developed, the implementation of legislation is weak, and the legal and particularly practical coverage of services is currently low.Regulations may stipulate comprehensive content for services, the practical content may often be very narrow, including only health examinations and curative general health services, based on the public health system.Preventive activities are under-developed with weak systems for recognition and registration of occupational diseases and injuries.There are substantial needs to develop financial systems for OHS by obligating employers to invest more in OHS and to organize alternative public service provision opportunities for the informal sector, agriculture and the self-employed.(Rantanen and Lehtinen, 2010)
27POOR OPERATORS LACK INCENTIVE TO MAINTAIN CLEAN WORKING ENVIRONMENTS Street Net Ghana Alliance: survey of 20 chop bars (informal eating establishment):Bar operators on average spent around US$ 1,142 annually on water, refuse removal, use of toilets, cleaning equipment, employee health certificates & fire fighting equipmentHow to make OHS more affordable for informal businesses?
28GHANA & TANZANIA: INSTITUTIONAL ANALYSIS Local Government (LG) is an important player in determining workplace conditions, with specific links to both formal and informal sector employments, and administration related issuesLG is not effective in maintaining an acceptable work environment:General lack of resourcesInstitutional Issues
29OHSMulti-disciplinary and inter-sectoral- addressed by a range of legislation under different departments / ministries and organisations.
30GHANA & TANZANIA: INSTITUTIONAL PROBLEMS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT Lack of horizontal coordination between local government departments that have jurisdiction over various aspects of health and safetyProblematic vertical alignments between LG and national govtLack of institutionalised communication between LG and informal workersPoor dissemination of public information (laws, policies, regulations, by-laws…)Insufficient regulation of privatised services
31INTERVENTIONS: PREVENTION OF RISKS, IMPROVING WORK CONDITIONS Participatory health screenings on morbidity and riskDevelopment of prototypes of improved equipmentAssessment of impact of new/ modified equipmentExchanging good practices between countries; and between national, regional and international organisations & networks of informal workers
32Sharing the learningDiagnostic workshops between workers and those who control OHSMultiple stakeholder policy dialogueIntegrating the learning into MBO planning and strategyDevelopment of accessible materials on organising around OHS issuesRegional meetings to share the learningPapers at international policy conferencesArticles in influential journalsInfluence on OHS curriculum
33TOWARDS SUSTAINED INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE: KEY ENABLING CONDITIONS Representative Voicemore and stronger organizations of the working poor in the informal economyrepresentation of such organizations in relevant policy-making, rule-setting, and collective bargaining institutions and processes at all levelsOfficial Visibilityimproved labor force and other economic statistics that measure all economic units and workers - including their earnings + contribution to GDPanalysis and dissemination of these data to policy-makers, advocates of informal workers, and organizations of working poor in informal economyresearch on the characteristics and situation of informal workersdocumentation of promising examples of policy, regulator, legal, and programmatic interventions in support of informal workersLegal and Policy Validitylegal identity and rights of informal workers as workers, asset holders, and citizenslegal recognition of the member-based organizations of informal workerslegal empowerment through inclusive legal and policy reform processes and appropriate legal and policy reformsA LONG TERM PROCESSImproved statistics:= improved understanding of labour markets and economy as a whole= informed policy and policy making= forces attention of policy makers = secret weapon in the hand of organizations of women workers (Ela Bhatt)