2 Definitions Cultural Diffusion Economic Base Megacity Urban Growth UrbanizationDecentralizationSuburbanizationCounter-urbanizationInfrastructureOver-urbanizationFiscal squeezeSquatter settlementsThreshold populationPrimate city
3 People Shifting Why do people urbanize? What would be reasons for people to move from the centre of cities to the suburbs?
4 POPULATION SHIFTTwo hundred years ago 5% of the world’s pop. (980 million) was urbanized.Now 47% is urbanized.
7 Urbanization figuresCan anyone find a the problem with this figure of 47% urbanization?Different countries have different criteria for recognizing an area as being urbanized.Canada and Australiapopulation greater than 1000ItalyGreater than 10,000JapanGreater than 50,000Stats can’t be taken too seriously.
8 What is a Megacity?A city that has a population over 8 million people.
9 Issues in MegacitiesCome up with some of the major issues that megacities would face.CrimeSanitationHousingOver crowdingAll forms of pollution???Squatter settlements
20 Problems with Urbanization In developing countries people flock to urban areas before any economic growth or infrastructure has been put in place, this leads to unpleasant conditions.What are the problems of growing Urban areas?Read page 32 and 33. Answer question 9 on 33
21 Quality of Life comparison Life in Peru to life in Canada (old text)How would you have answer Luis’ two questions?If you were in Luis’ position, how would you feel about leaving your family behind, if you were able to go to North America?Do you believe Luis’ has a moral obligation to remain with his family? Why?What obligations do we as Canadians have to people in other parts of the world who are less fortunate than us?
22 IntroOur exposure to information by mass media tells us of events, conditions and issues in places all over the world. It is nearly impossible to remain ignorant to the horrors of starvation and the living conditions of people around the world. If you have been able to travel to different places around the world you may have seen this first hand.Within Canada we can see various lifestyles and issues that are facing others around the world.
23 Have vs. Have Nots What do we mean by these? We know that most of the wealthy countries in the North and most of the poorer countries are in the South.Why might this be?
24 What advantages might the North have over the South? HousingStabilityTechnologyInformationFewer critical Diseases
25 Poverty facts to ponder The World Bank estimated that if rich nations gave $12.5 billion to the poorer nations for 10 years, all the people’s basic needs would be met.Each year people in the rich nations spend approx $100 billion on alcohol.Americans spend more on cosmetics per year than the budgets of all the African countries.Half the world — nearly three billion people — live on less than two dollars a day.The GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of the poorest 48 nations (i.e. a quarter of the world’s countries) is less than the wealth of the world’s three richest people combined.Less than one per cent of what the world spent every year on weapons was needed to put every child into school by the year 2000 and yet it didn't happen.20% of the population in the developed nations, consume 86% of the world’s goods.
26 Some 1.8 million child deaths each year as a result of diarrhea “The lives of 1.7 million children will be needlessly lost this year  because world governments have failed to reduce poverty levels”Some 1.1 billion people in developing countries have inadequate access to water, and 2.6 billion lack basic sanitation.Some 1.8 million child deaths each year as a result of diarrheaNumber of children in the world2.2 billionNumber in poverty1 billion (every second child)
27 Global Spending Global Priority $U.S. Billions Cosmetics in the United States8Ice cream in Europe11Perfumes in Europe and the United States12Pet foods in Europe and the United States17Business entertainment in Japan35Cigarettes in Europe50Alcoholic drinks in Europe105Narcotics drugs in the world400Military spending in the world780
29 Do activity on p.136 (new book) Economic Problems Fiscal squeeze – not enough tax $ to pay for the services. Businesses moved from inner city to outer areas taking tax dollars. (This has meant roads, water, sewer, buildings deteriorate.) Governments have had to bail them out. P.135Social problemsPoverty – 20% of urban dwellers live below poverty line.Number of homeless has increased drastically since 1980’s because of welfare cutbacks.Shortage of affordable housing.
30 Environmental- Increase in # of vehicles means increase in pollution. We live in a “Throw away society”.Perceived and planned obsolescence
31 Problems in Urban Areas in Developing Countries
32 Economic ProblemsLow wage jobs – shoe shine, begging, selling souvenirs.Leads to high prostitution.Child labourHuge gaps between rich and poor.Hard to offer services to publicSchools, transportation systems, social services
33 Social ProblemsSquatter settlements - Illegally set up settlements on land and do not pay rent.Very poor living conditions – no sewers, water or electricity .Slum Dwellers – pay rentPoor living conditionsHigh sick ratesHigh Infant mortalityPovertyCrimeWorld Bank gives aid to assist in educating and providing healthcare.
35 EnvironmentalNatural Disasters hit them the hardest because of the poorly constructed buildings.Sites next to industrial areas are very susceptible to toxins and air pollutants.Developing countries usually have very poorly maintained vehicles and unregulated gas leading to pollution. (CO, CO2, lead, NO2,)Infrastructure supplying clean drinking water is usually connected to infrastructure dealing with disposal of waste.(Much of the sewage in poor urban areas still runs into ditches beside roads and flows into rivers used for drinking.)