Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Laureen H. Smith, PhD, RN Principal Investigator The Ohio State University June 1, 2009.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Laureen H. Smith, PhD, RN Principal Investigator The Ohio State University June 1, 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 Laureen H. Smith, PhD, RN Principal Investigator The Ohio State University June 1, 2009

2  Pamela Salsberry, PhD, RN Co Investigator  Jodi Nearns, PhD, RN Co Investigator  Christopher Holloman, PhD Statistician

3  Children living in Rural Ohio  Children living in Rural Appalachia  Appalachia Ohio: Counties that Border the Ohio River  Comparisons to Date  Urban and Rural

4  Examine if there are differences in access to and utilization of health care services between children living in rural areas and children living in Appalachian areas of Ohio  Describe the underlying health of these children

5  Are there differences in the health?  Are there differences in health care access?  Are there differences in health care utilization?  What is the relationship between health, health care access and health care utilization?  How do Appalachian children living in river- bordering counties compare to the other children?

6

7 : “Smith’s” Adaptation of Aday’s Framework for Understanding Access and Utilization (Aday et al, 1999) 2

8  Data from 2008 OFHS  Child Questionnaire and Parent Health Status Data  Children – someone under the age of 18 years  Parent – mother or father of said child

9  Un-weighted sample Rural Children:N = 2750 Appalachia Children:N = 2954 Weighted values were applied to all model variables using Weight_C

10 Table 2: Measures FrameworkConstruct/VariablesMeasureOFHS Data Element STRUCTURE Delivery system availabilityAccess Regular place of careYes/NoN137, N137 Check Regular providerYes/NoN137b Difficulty accessing specialty careNo or small problem/Big problemK4Q26 Populations -at-risk Age in years, Race/ethnicity (white, Black, Asian, Native American, Hispanic) Age_c; race_c_imp i90,P150,P148 PredisposingAge, ethnicity, gender EnablingHealth InsurancePrivate, Gov’t, UninsuredJ100a-J100f; J120, H87 NeedHealth Parent-reported health status; Weight state (under weight, normal weight, overweight, obese) L125, BMI_C, BMI_c_CAT Environments Physical, social, economicGeographical RegionAppalachianCounty_A River, Non-River Rural, non-Appalachian PROCESS Realized AccessUtilization Well CareWell child/baby visitM130 Preventive Dental CareM130a Sick CareER visits; # days since non-preventive dental visits; Overnight hospital; Seen by specialist; # days since last MD visit K4Q24;M132;M135; M134;M131 Note: N137 (regular place for care) was recoded in such as way that it is the same as the created variable “usual_c” found in the final OFHS dataset

11  Parent Health Perception of general health D30 BMI CategoryBMI_A_CAT

12  Descriptive Analyses  Chi-Square Tests  Correlations  Bi-variate and Logistic Regression  Bayesian Hierarchical Modeling

13  Cross-sectional data with reasonable latent factors  Not assuming a linear relationship with all variables  Not constrained to assume linear relationships  Not constrained to assume normal distribution  Models for missing data  Directly test the interactions between groups

14

15

16 DemographicsRuralAppalachia Child Age Mean SD Gender (%) Male Female Ethnicity (%) White Black Asian Native American Hispanic Parent/Guardian Gender (%) Male Female Ethnicity (%) White Black Asian Native American Hispanic Unemployed (%) (Neither Parent Employed)

17 Child HealthRuralAppalachia Perceived General Health (%) Excellent Very Good Good Fair Poor Don’t Know/Refused Body Mass Index (%) Underweight Normal weight Overweight Obese Out of Range Parent Health Perceived General Health (%) Excellent Very Good Good Fair Poor Body Mass Index (%) Underweight Normal Weight Overweight Obese

18  No difference between Appalachian and Rural Children  Children who are underweight, overweight or obese had poorer general health  Male children had poorer health  Black and Hispanic children had poorer health  Parent health was related to child health  Black and Hispanic parents has poorer health

19 RuralAppalachia Provider Access Has Personal Doctor or Nurse (%) YES (%) NO Access to a Place for Care Child has a place for care (%) YES (%) NO Don’t Know/Refused Difficulty with Access Specialist If Seen by Specialist, Perceived Difficulty (% for those who saw a specialist) No problem or Small problem Large Problem or Much Difficulty

20 Type of InsuranceRuralAppalachia (%) on Government (%) on Private (%) Insured – type unknown (%) Uninsured (%) Medicaid Eligible- not enrolled d

21 Type of UtilizationRuralAppalachia Wellness Care Received well baby or well child checkup (within past year) %YES %NO Dental Visit for Standard Check Up (within past year) (%) YES (%) NO Sickness Care Has seen a Specialist for Care (%) YES (%) NO Average Number of Overnight Hospital Stays (within past year)- total sample Standard Deviation % of Total that were Users Average Number of ER visits (within past year) –total sample Standard Deviation % of Total that were Users

22 Health Parent Health Status Child Health Status Parent BMI Child BMI Parent Health Status Child Health Status Parent BMI Child BMI1.0

23 Access to Care Regular Provider Regular Place Difficulty with Specialist Care Regular Provider Regular Place Difficulty with Specialist Care 1.0

24 Wellness Care Well Baby/Child Checkup Preventive Dental Care Well Baby/Child Checkup Preventive Dental Care1.0 Sickness Care Days since Last Doctor’s Visit Seen Specialist for Care Overnight Hospital Stays ER Visits Days since Last Doctor’s Visit Seen Specialist Overnight Hospital Stays ER Visits1.0

25  Noteworthy findings Children who had a regular place for care were 3 ½ times more likely to have had a well baby/child check up Children who had a regular provider were 1 ½ times more likely to have had a well baby/child check up Children in poorer health were less likely to have had a well baby/child check up Children with a regular provider were 1 ½ times more likely to have receive preventive dental care Children with a regular place for care were 2 ½ times more likely to receive preventive dental care

26 Modeling Results for Rural Children

27 Modeling Results for Appalachian Children

28  Appalachian Children have less access to care  Appalachian Children in poorer health had less access to care  Having a regular care provider improved access to care for both groups

29  Children with private insurance had better access and care utilization (compared to uninsured)  Insurance coverage had a larger impact on access to care for Appalachian children  Government insurance improved access for Appalachian children  Rural children with government insurance did not differ from uninsured in accessing care

30  More wellness and sickness care utilization in Appalachia Regardless of access, health or insurance status  Private insurance most important for wellness care in rural region  Government insurance larger impact on wellness care in Appalachia  In rural region, children in poorer health had less wellness care utilization

31  In rural region, children with government insurance had more sickness care utilization (compared to uninsured)  Appalachian children with government insurance did not differ from uninsured in sickness care utilization  Having insurance coverage was more important for Appalachian children in sickness are utilization, compared to rural region

32 Modeling Results for Non-River Appalachian Children

33 Modeling Results for River-Bordering Appalachian Children

34  Less overall access to care in River- bordering Appalachian counties  Having private insurance was most important to accessing care in River- bordering Appalachia  In non-River Appalachia, children in poorer health had less access to care (compared to other Appalachia and rural)

35  Wellness care most prevalent in River- bordering Appalachia  Wellness care least prevalent in Rural region  Sickness care most prevalent in non-River Appalachia  Importance of insurance coverage on sickness care greatest in Rural region  In non-River Appalachia, children with private insurance had less sickness care

36  Health Professional Shortage Areas  Unique Characteristics of Appalachia  Insurance Status and Access to Care  Insurance Status and Health Care Utilization  Prevalence of Childhood Overweight and Obesity

37  Used 2008 OHFS data only  Measures of child and parent health  Locations of care not included  Under-insured

38  Wrap-around services  Expansion of services  Pediatric health care providers  Reduction of “missed opportunities”  Safety net of providers- rural region  Recognizing rural region as vulnerable  Alternative health care delivery methods  BMI Screening & Surveillance  Social Marketing & Education


Download ppt "Laureen H. Smith, PhD, RN Principal Investigator The Ohio State University June 1, 2009."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google