Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

ANTHONY GIDDENS ● MITCHELL DUNEIER ● RICHARD APPELBAUM ● DEBORA CARR Slides created by Shannon Anderson, Roanoke College Third Edition Chapter 8: Global.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "ANTHONY GIDDENS ● MITCHELL DUNEIER ● RICHARD APPELBAUM ● DEBORA CARR Slides created by Shannon Anderson, Roanoke College Third Edition Chapter 8: Global."— Presentation transcript:

1 ANTHONY GIDDENS ● MITCHELL DUNEIER ● RICHARD APPELBAUM ● DEBORA CARR Slides created by Shannon Anderson, Roanoke College Third Edition Chapter 8: Global Inequality 1

2 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. The big issues Inequality between and within countries Theories of global inequality What inequality looks like around the world How global inequality affects us 2

3 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Globalization Globalization is a process of increased interconnectedness, especially in terms of economics, politics, and culture. Globalization has led to massive wealth for some, while others are left further and further behind. 3

4 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Global inequality Systematic differences in wealth and power between countries; significant systems of stratification exist within countries as well. Per person gross national income (GNI) ) is used as a measure of global inequality. –High: $11,906+ –Middle: $976–11,905 –Low: $975 or less 4

5 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. 5 Comparing Quality of Life Among Countries SOURCE: World Bank 2009b. GROSS NATIONAL INCOME PER CAPITA (Current U.S. $) TOTAL POPULATION ANNUAL POPULATION GROWTH LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES MEDIUM-INCOME COUNTRIES HIGH-INCOME COUNTRIES WORLD $524 973 million 2.1% $3,260 4,651 million 1.1% $39,345 1,069 million 0.7% $8,613 6,692 million 1.2% Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company Global inequality

6 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. 6 Comparing Quality of Life Among Countries SOURCE: World Bank 2009b. LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH TOTAL POPULATION ANNUAL POPULATION GROWTH LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES MEDIUM-INCOME COUNTRIES HIGH-INCOME COUNTRIES WORLD 59 years 4 births per woman 120 per 1,000 69 years 2.4 births per woman 58 per 1,000 79 years 1.8 births per woman 7 per 1,000 69 years 2.5 births per woman 68 per 1,000 Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company Global inequality

7 Figure 8.2 GNI per Person in Low-, Middle-, and High-Income Countries, 1983– 2008 Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

8 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Explaining global inequality Four primary approaches: 1.Market theories 2.Dependency theories 3.World System Analysis 4.State-centered theories 8

9 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Market theories Free markets are seen as the best path for optimal global development. Low government intervention should be coupled with “free,” unconstrained individual action. Example: Rostow’s modernization theory 9

10 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Dependency theories The theories are a rejection of market theories, built on Marxian ideas. Global inequality is seen as the result of exploitation by wealthy countries and other international players (INGOs and MNCs). Global inequality stemmed from colonialism and has been reinforced by global trade and finance. 10

11 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. World System Analysis Developed in 1970s by Immanuel Wallerstein, World System Analysis (WSA) sees the entire world economy as one system. There are core, peripheral, and semi- peripheral nations whose uneven balance of wealth and power defines the current order. Without debt relief, the system will be nearly impossible to change. 11

12 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. State-centered theories This approach emphasizes the necessary and constructive role of government intervention in economic development and global markets. –This is in stark contrast to market theories. It developed in large part from studies of the rapid development of East Asian economies at the end of the twentieth century. 12

13 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Where does change lead? In both positive and negative directions: –Prosperity –Consumption –Exploitation (and further inequality) –Repression –Enhanced role in new global order 13

14 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Basic markers of inequality The majority of the world’s poor are illiterate. One-third are undernourished. More than 40 percent of all urban-dwellers in developing countries live in slums. The poor have worse health, die younger, and have significantly higher rates of infant and child mortality. 14

15 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. What will globalization bring? There are many potential scenarios: –Ever-increasing polarization between haves and have-nots –New opportunities for everyone –Entrenched technological divide There is room for optimism and pessimism; change will certainly affect us all. 15

16 W. W. Norton & Company Independent and Employee-Owned This concludes the Lecture PowerPoint Presentation for For more learning resources, please visit our online StudySpace at: http://www.wwnorton.com/college/soc/essentials-of-sociology8/ http://www.wwnorton.com/college/soc/essentials-of-sociology8/ 16 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Chapter 8: Global Inequality

17 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 1. What is the trend of global inequality? a. The rich get richer, the poor get poorer. b. The rich get poorer, the poor get richer. c. The gap between rich and poor countries has remained the same. d. There is no clear trend of global inequality. 17

18 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 2. According to state-centered development theory, why have some regions of the world been so successful in developing their economies in recent years? a. The political and military power of rich nations has contributed to the repression of opposition and the promotion of business interests in these regions because there is a direct benefit to them. b. Appropriate government policies are the key because they ensure political stability, lower labor costs, and provide social services that promote economic development. c. People in these regions have begun to lose their traditional orientation to life and adopted a way of life that is more consistent with economic development. d. Global commodity chains have helped to upgrade the economies of these regions, thereby making them more competitive. 18

19 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 3. According to world-systems theory, why are core nations wealthy? a. They possess the richest natural resources. b. Their cultures are characterized by the optimal set of attitudes and values. c. They have been able to control the economies of peripheral and semi-peripheral countries for their own economic advantage. d. They are technology innovators rather than technology adopters. 19

20 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 4. What is the trend of global inequality? a. The rich get richer, the poor get poorer. b. The rich get poorer, the poor get richer. c. The gap between rich and poor countries has remained the same. d. There is no clear trend of global inequality. 20

21 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 5. The political economic system by which more powerful nations take possession of less powerful ones in order to gain control of both natural resources and local markets is called: a. domination. b. colonialism. c. co-dependency. d. modernization. 21

22 Art Presentation Slides Chapter 8 Anthony Giddens Mitchell Duneier Richard P. Appelbaum Deborah Carr Global Inequality

23 Chapter Opener Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

24 The billionaire Carlos Slim is an example of the many Super rich who accumulated tremendous wealth through investment in technology and telecommunications. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

25 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Global inequality Comparing Quality of Life Among Countries SOURCE: World Bank 2009b. GROSS NATIONAL INCOME PER CAPITA (Current U.S. $) TOTAL POPULATION ANNUAL POPULATION GROWTH LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES MEDIUM-INCOME COUNTRIES HIGH-INCOME COUNTRIES WORLD $524 973 million 2.1% $3,260 4,651 million 1.1% $39,345 1,069 million 0.7% $8,613 6,692 million 1.2% Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

26 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Global inequality Comparing Quality of Life Among Countries SOURCE: World Bank 2009b. LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH TOTAL POPULATION ANNUAL POPULATION GROWTH LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES MEDIUM-INCOME COUNTRIES HIGH-INCOME COUNTRIES WORLD 59 years 4 births per woman 120 per 1,000 69 years 2.4 births per woman 58 per 1,000 79 years 1.8 births per woman 7 per 1,000 69 years 2.5 births per woman 68 per 1,000 Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

27 Map 8.1 Rich and Poor Countries: The World by Income, 2007 Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

28 Figure 8.2 GNI per Person in Low-, Middle-, and High-Income Countries, 1983– 2008 Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

29 Nkonge Mata, a 10- year- old displaced Congolese boy, sits in a clinic run by the medical charity Medecins Sans Frontieres Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

30 Hong Kong along with Taiwan, South Korea, and Singapore, have become some of the most rapidly growing economies on Earth. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

31 Globalization and Everyday Life Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

32 Globalization and Everyday Life Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

33 Although Nigeria is the world’s eighth largest producer of oil Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

34 Female workers make Barbie dolls at a toy factory in the Guangdong province of China. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

35 The Skeens in Pearland, Texas and the Castillo Balderas in Guadalajara, Mexico are both considered middle class families in their respective communities. Do you think they would have the same attitudes about capitalism and poverty? Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

36 W.W. Norton & Company Independent and Employee-Owned Essentials Of Sociology THIRD EDITION This concludes the Art Presentation Slides Slide Set for Chapter 8 by Anthony Giddens Mitchell Duneier Richard P. Appelbaum Deborah Carr


Download ppt "ANTHONY GIDDENS ● MITCHELL DUNEIER ● RICHARD APPELBAUM ● DEBORA CARR Slides created by Shannon Anderson, Roanoke College Third Edition Chapter 8: Global."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google