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Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10: Choice, Matching, & Self-Control

2 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. In Real Situations Operant conditioning is rarely a matter of being offered only one source of reinforcement. Instead, individuals typically choose between alternative sources of reinforcement.

3 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement the simultaneous presentation of two or more independent schedules, each leading to a reinforcer. The organism is thus allowed a choice. Example: –A pigeon can choose between responding on a red key with a VR 20 schedule and a green key with a VR 50 schedule.

4 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. The Matching Law the proportion of responses emitted on a particular schedule matches the proportion of reinforcers obtained on that schedule. Example: –A pigeon will emit approximately twice as many responses on the VI 30-sec schedule as on the VI 60- sec schedule. The matching law predicts a consistent relationship between the proportion of reinforcers and the proportion of responses.

5 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Matching Law Equation R A S R A. R A + R B = S R A + S R B R A - number of responses emitted on schedule A R B - number of responses emitted on schedule B S R A - number of reinforcers earned on schedule A S R B is the number of reinforcers earned on schedule B

6 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Equation Example Use hypothetical data from an experiment involving a choice between a VI 30-sec and a VI 60-sec schedule. Our hypothetical pigeon obtains 119 reinforcers on the VI 30- sec schedule and 58 reinforcers (about half as many) on the VI 60-sec schedule. Our hypothetical pigeon emits 2,800 responses on the VI 30-sec schedule and 1,450 responses on the VI 60-sec schedule.

7 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Equation Example, continued The proportion of responses emitted on the VI 30-sec schedule is.66. The proportion of reinforcement obtained on that schedule was.67).

8 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Conger and Killeen (1974) Study of Matching in Humans They asked volunteers to participate with three others in a discussion session on drug abuse. While the volunteer was talking, the two confederates sat on either side and intermittently expressed approval. They found that the relative amount of time the volunteer looked at each confederate matched the relative frequency of verbal approval delivered by that confederate.

9 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Undermatching the proportion of responses is less different than would be predicted by matching. Example: –The matching law predicts that the proportion of responses should be.67 on the richer VI 30-sec schedule and.33 on the poorer VI 60-sec schedule. –If we instead find proportions of.60 and.40, respectively, then undermatching has occurred. Undermatching can occur when there is little cost for switching from one schedule to another.

10 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Changeover Delay (COD) a slight delay of during which no response will be effective in producing a reinforcer, even if a reinforcer happens to be available at that time. A slight cost for switching between schedules can be added to reduce undermatching. Example: –A 2-second delay on reinforcers.

11 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Overmatching the proportion of responses on the richer schedule versus the poorer schedule is more different than would be predicted by matching. Example: –The matching law predicts that the proportion of responses should be.67 on the richer VI 30-sec schedule and.33 on the poorer VI 60-sec schedule. –If we instead find proportions of.80 and.20, respectively, then overmatching has occurred.

12 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Overmatching, continued Overmatching can occur when the cost of moving from one alternative to another is very high. Example: –A pigeon had to walk around a partition and climb across a wooden hurdle to switch from one response key to another.

13 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Bias from Matching when one alternative attracts a higher proportion of responses than would be predicted by matching. This happens regardless of whether that alternative contains the richer or poorer schedule of reinforcement. Example: –The matching law predicts that the proportion of responses on the red key should be.67 on the rich schedule and.33 on the poorer schedule. –If the proportions instead turned out to be.77 on the rich schedule and.43 on the poor schedule, then bias has occurred.

14 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Example of Bias from Matching in Humans Erin might spend additional time directing her conversation toward Jason, whom she finds very attractive. On one day, he provides 72% of the reinforcers during a conversation, but she nevertheless looks at him 84% of the time. On another day, he provides only 23% of the reinforcers, but she nevertheless looks at him 36% of the time. In each case, she looks at him more than would be predicted by matching.

15 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Bias from Matching & Preference Bias in matching can be used to indicate degree of preference for different reinforcers. Example: –On a concurrent VI 60-sec VI 60-sec schedule, the pigeon should respond equally. –If each alternative leads to a different reinforcer, the higher response rate or bias toward one schedule may indicate reiforcer preference.

16 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Example of Preference Although a child might spend little time reading, this does not mean that reading is not a reinforcing activity for that child. If other highly reinforcing activities happen to be simultaneously available, reading may be losing out. Limit the amount of time those other activities are available. The child might naturally gravitate toward reading.

17 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Melioration Theory the distribution of behavior in a choice situation shifts toward those alternatives that have higher value regardless of the long-term effect on the overall amount of reinforcement. Example: –The VI 30-sec schedule will have a much higher value than the VI 60-sec schedule. –The pigeon will be tempted in subsequent sessions to shift more and more of its behavior in that direction.

18 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Melioration Theory, continued Melioration in this situation is thus a sort of leveling out process, in which behavior shifts until the two alternatives have about equal value in costs versus benefits. The tendency to move toward the richer alternative can sometimes result in a substantial reduction in the total amount of reinforcement obtained, because: 1.the alternative may not require as much responding 2.overindulgence in a highly reinforcing alternative can often result in long-term habituation 3.melioration is often the result of behavior being too strongly governed by immediate consequences

19 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1. An Alternative May Not Require As Much Responding Example: –A pigeon obtains 60% of its reinforcers from the VI 30-sec schedule. –It will spend 60% of its time responding on the VI 30- sec schedule and only 40% of its time responding on the VR 100 schedule. –However, the pigeon should spend most of its time on the VR schedule because the number of reinforcers obtained is directly tied to the number of responses made. –The pigeon should briefly switch to the VI alternative every 30 seconds to pick up any reinforcer that might have become available on that alternative.

20 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Another Example Students often spend the most time studying for their most enjoyable course and the least time studying for their least enjoyable course. Yet the least enjoyable course is probably the one on which students should spend the most time studying. The result is that they spend the least time studying those courses that require the most work.

21 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2. Overindulgence Can Result In Long-term Habituation Example: –You suddenly become so rich that you can eat as much as you want of whatever you want, such as lobster. –The problem is that if you eat lobster this frequently, you will likely become habituated to it. –Although it is still enjoyable, it is no longer the heavenly treat that it once was.

22 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Another Example If drinking in a bar is a highly enjoyable activity, you might begin shifting more and more of your behavior in that direction. Eventually, you will be spending so much time in the bar that the overall amount of reinforcement in your life is substantially reduced. Drinking is no longer as enjoyable and you are missing out on reinforcers from other nonalcohol-related activities.

23 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3. Behavior Is Governed By Immediate Consequences Examples: –The immediate reinforcement available from studying more enjoyable courses tempts one away from working on less enjoyable courses and maximizing one’s overall grade point average at the end of the term. –The immediate reinforcement available from going to the bar each evening tempts one away from moderating one’s drinking and eventually establishing a more healthy and satisfying lifestyle.

24 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Self-Control Examples of a lack of self-control: –You decide to quit smoking but do not persist more than a day, –You are determined to go for a run each morning but cannot get out of bed to do so. –You resolve to study each evening but spend most evenings either watching television or socializing.

25 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Self-Control & Willpower A person who behaves wisely and resists temptations is said to have a lot of willpower, whereas a person who behaves poorly and yields to temptations is said to have little willpower. Willpower merely describes what someone did. It does not explain why he was able to do it. Example: –Someone trying to quit smoking.

26 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Skinner on Self-Control Managing conflicting outcomes involves two types of responses: –a controlling response that serves to alter the frequency of a controlled response Example: –To control the amount of money you spend you leave most of your money at home when heading out one evening (controlling response). –The amount you subsequently spend is the controlled response.

27 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Types of Controlling Responses Physical Restraint –Examples: Leaving money at home or loaning your television set to a friend for the semester Depriving and Satiating –Examples: skip lunch before an expensive dinner or shop for groceries after a meal Doing Something Else –Example: chew gum to help you stop smoking

28 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Types of Controlling Responses, continued Self-Reinforcement and Self-Punishment –Example: You promise to have a pizza after completing 3 hours of studying or you promise to do 20 push-ups following each cigarette smoked. –The problem is keeping yourself from cheating. –Self-delivered consequences are more effective when the person perceives that other people are aware of the contingency. –Self-delivered contingencies are a recommended component of many self-management programs.

29 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. The Temporal Issue Immediate consequences are generally more powerful than delayed consequences. Self-control involves choosing the larger later reinforcer over the smaller sooner reinforcer. Example: –A student who can either go out for the evening and have a good time or study in the hopes of achieving an excellent grade.

30 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. The Temporal Issue, continued Self-control involves the choice between a smaller sooner punisher and a larger later punisher. Example: –In deciding whether to go to the dentist, we choose between enduring a small amount of discomfort now from minor dental treatment and risking a large amount of discomfort from an infected tooth in the distant future.

31 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. It isn’t a simple choice! Example: –Choosing not to smoke leads to both a smaller sooner punisher in the form of withdrawal symptoms and a larger later reward in the form of improved health. –Continuing to smoke leads to both a smaller sooner reward in the form of a nicotine high and a larger later punisher in the form of deteriorating health.

32 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Delayed Consequences often present a sort of double whammy. Their value is weakened because they are delayed and because they are less certain. Example: –There is no guarantee that you will become sick and die if you continue to smoke, nor is there any guarantee that you will become radiantly healthy if you quit smoking.

33 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Delay of Gratification Task the task of choosing between a smaller sooner reinforcer and a larger later reinforcer. The person or animal must forgo the smaller sooner reward to obtain the larger later reward. The subject has to “delay gratification. Self-control consists of choosing a larger later reward over a smaller sooner reward. Impulsiveness consists of choosing a smaller sooner reward over a larger later reward.

34 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Mischel’s Delay of Gratification Paradigm The earliest systematic research using a delay-of- gratification procedure was carried out by Walter Mischel. A child was led into a room that contained two items, one of which was clearly preferred. The child was told that he or she could attain the preferred item by simply waiting for the experimenter to return. If the child wished, however, the experimenter could be summoned by sounding a signal, at which point the child received only the smaller, nonpreferred item.

35 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Mischel’s Delay of Gratification Paradigm, continued The question of interest was to see what sorts of strategies some children used to wait out the delay period and obtain the larger reward. Some children simply averted or covered their eyes from the promised rewards. Other children did something else to distract themselves. Children who focused on abstract qualities of the object did better. Follow-up studies revealed that the children who had waited for preferred rewards were more cognitively and socially competent.

36 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. The Reversal At an early point in time, when both rewards are still distant, the larger later reward (LLR) is clearly preferred. As time passes, however, and the smaller sooner reward (SSR) becomes imminent, its value increases sharply and comes to outweigh the value of the LLR. Example: –The student who, when she wakes up in the morning, decides that she will definitely study that evening is at the far left. –As evening approaches, however, and the possibility of going out (the SSR) becomes imminent, the student will be strongly tempted to socialize that evening.

37 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Reversal Graph

38 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Reversal Studies Examples: –Pigeons presented with two choices: a peck on the red key resulting in 2-sec access to grain following a 20-sec delay (the SSR) or a peck on the green key resulted in 6-sec access to grain following a 24-sec delay (the LLR). –Humans choosing between: a $100 certified check that can be immediately cashed or a $200 certified check that can be cashed in 2 years.

39 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Changing the Shape of the Delay Function for LLR The basic reason preference reversal occurs is because the LLR has low value at long delays. There appear to be innate differences in impulsivity between species. There may also be differences between individuals, with some individuals more impulsive than others. People become less impulsive as they grow older. Repeated experience with responding for delayed rewards impacts impulsiveness.

40 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Changing the Shape of the Delay Function for LLR, continued The availability of other sources of reinforcement may be yet another factor that influences impulsiveness. We can more easily maintain responding for a distant goal by setting up an explicit series of subgoals.

41 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Commitment Response an action carried out at an early point in time that serves either to eliminate or greatly reduce the value of an upcoming temptation. Example: –To ensure that she studies tonight, she gives her younger brother $20 in the morning and instructs him to keep it if she fails to study that evening. –The aversive consequence that would result from not studying has reduced the value of any alternate activity and the larger later reward of obtaining a good mark.

42 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Behavioral Contracting a person formally arranges to attain certain rewards for resisting temptation or receive certain punishers for yielding to temptation. The contract is negotiated with a therapist. The contingencies outlined in the contract serve to reduce the attractiveness of the tempting alternative.

43 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Even Pigeons Can Make Commitements In Rachlin and Green’s study (1972), pigeons were then given the option of pecking another key that would eliminate the SSR as one of the choices and leave the LLR as the only alternative. Many of the pigeons selected this option, thereby essentially removing the temptation ahead of time.

44 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Small-But-Cumulative Effects Model Each choice of an SSR versus LLR has only a small but cumulative effect on reaching our goals. This is why self-control is so difficult. Example: –Choosing between a restaurant’s world famous Greaze-Burger and their far healthier, but much less appetizing, Tofu Salad Supreme, when trying to maintain a healthy lifestyle. –It is only because that one burger is unlikely to result in punishing outcomes that its value can rise so sharply.

45 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Improving Self-Control Develop a plan to handle occasional lapses. Establish rules that clearly distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable behaviors. The actual point when an impulsive behavior becomes harmful is often not clear. The clearest rule might be total abstinence from a tempting event. Example: –Alcoholics Anonymous’ rule of never, ever consuming alcohol

46 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Summary A concurrent schedule provides opportunity to respond on two or more independent schedules that are simultaneously available. Choice behavior in such situations often obeys the matching law. There are certain deviations from matching: –Undermatching –Overmatching –Bias from Matching

47 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Summary, continued According to melioration theory, matching results from the subject’s tendency to shift behavior toward a better-paying alternative. This can overindulgence can result in: –reduction the overall amount of reinforcement –long-term habituation to that alternative –high attraction to immediate reinforcers

48 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Summary, continued Skinner viewed self-control as involving a choice between conflicting outcomes. He believed self-control is facilitated by emitting a controlling response that then alters the probability of a controlled response. Other believe self-control involves a choice between a smaller sooner reward and a larger later reward. This is called delay-of-gratification perspective.

49 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Summary, continued Resisting temptation is aided by –distraction from the tempting reward. –thinking of the reward in terms of its abstract rather than concrete properties The Ainslie–Rachlin model of self-control says that the value of a reward increases sharply as it becomes imminent. Therefore, preferences for LLRs and SSRs tend to shift over time.

50 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Summary, continued Factors that may affect the self-control include: – biological variables, –age, –experience with responding for delayed rewards, –the presence of other sources of reinforcement, and –the attainment of subgoals relating to the LLR.

51 Introduction to Learning and Behavior, 3e by Russell A. Powell, Diane G. Symbaluk, and P. Lynne Honey Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Publishing, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Summary, continued A commitment response is a response that serves to reduce the value of the SSR so that its value remains below the value of the LLR. According to the small-but-cumulative effects model, we are frequently tempted to make an exception to a self-control program because each individual temptation has only an insignificant effect on our long-term goal.


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