Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Poverty and Underdevelopment Lecture 1: Famine in India Lecture 2: The Causes of Poverty and Underdevelopment Lecturer: David Hardiman.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Poverty and Underdevelopment Lecture 1: Famine in India Lecture 2: The Causes of Poverty and Underdevelopment Lecturer: David Hardiman."— Presentation transcript:

1 Poverty and Underdevelopment Lecture 1: Famine in India Lecture 2: The Causes of Poverty and Underdevelopment Lecturer: David Hardiman

2 Madras Famine

3 Western Indian famine of

4

5 Features of Famine in late Nineteenth Century India 1.Rain failure. 2.Hoarding by traders and urban moneylenders. Export of grain. 3.Attacks on grain shops and stores. Upsurge in robberies. 4.Government demands tax at normal harvest time. Many refuse to pay. Tax officials apply coercion, forcing richer peasants to pay up. Poorer peasants have land confiscated, or mortgage or sell property - jewellery, farm implements, land - to moneylenders to pay taxes. Richest peasants and moneylenders enlarge their holdings. 5.Government establishes relief works, to which poorest peasants go. Middling peasants, and higher castes without resources starve. 6.Destitute start to wander in search of food. Some receive charitable relief in towns. 7.Suicides, parents sell or kill children, deaths (often of disease).

6

7 Features of Famine in late Nineteenth Century India 1. Rain failure. 2. Hoarding by traders and urban moneylenders. Export of grain. 3. Attacks on grain shops and stores. Upsurge in robberies. 4. At normal harvest time, Government demands tax. Many peasants refuse to pay. Leads to coercion by tax-officials, forcing richer peasants to pay up. Poorer peasants have land confiscated, or mortgage or sell property - jewellery, farm implements, land - to moneylenders to pay taxes. Richest peasants and moneylenders enlarge their holdings. 5. Government establishes relief works, to which poorest peasants go. Middling peasants, and higher castes without resources starve. 6. Destitute start to wander in search of food. Some receive charitable relief in towns. 7. Suicides, parents sell or kill children, deaths (often of disease).

8

9

10 The Irish famine Bridget O'Donnel and her children Illustrated London News, 22 December 1849

11 Ethiopian famine 1984

12 Monsoon July-Sept

13

14

15

16

17

18

19 Major Famines in India western United Provinces Bengal, Bihar, Orissa. Orissa worst hit Maharashtra and South India Maharashtra and South India Gujarat and Rajasthan

20 British policy towards famine Ideological commitment to free trade. Belief that famine corrected over-population, following theory of Thomas Malthus. Belief that free relief promotes idleness and saps initiative, following doctrines of the Utilitarians. People must labour for their subsistence. ‘Famine-proofing’ through building of irrigation canals Famine Codes – drawn up in 1880, but only implemented effectively after 1900.

21 2. Population theory – Thomas Malthus

22 British policy towards famine Commitment to free trade, following economic theory of Adam Smith. Belief that famine corrected over-population, following theory of Thomas Malthus. Belief that free relief promotes idleness and saps initiative, following doctrines of the Utilitarians. People must labour for their subsistence. ‘Famine-proofing’ through building of irrigation canals Famine Codes – drawn up in 1880, but only implemented effectively after 1900.

23 Famine relief works

24 The Ganges Canal at Rookee, 1863

25

26

27 The Famine Codes – post 1880

28 Bengal famine 1943

29 Bengal Famine, street in Calcutta, 1943

30


Download ppt "Poverty and Underdevelopment Lecture 1: Famine in India Lecture 2: The Causes of Poverty and Underdevelopment Lecturer: David Hardiman."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google