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Modernisation World Systems Dependency Based on three regions Theory based on pure capitalism Brain drain takes from periphery Poorer countries will remain.

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Presentation on theme: "Modernisation World Systems Dependency Based on three regions Theory based on pure capitalism Brain drain takes from periphery Poorer countries will remain."— Presentation transcript:

1 Modernisation World Systems Dependency Based on three regions Theory based on pure capitalism Brain drain takes from periphery Poorer countries will remain poor USA - perfect example Every country will develop Based on core and periphery A critique is that stages can be leapt over Poorer countries will develop over time Different stages of development evident China upsets this theory Poorer countries can break free of dependency Africa is largely exploited in this theory Semi periphery can exploit periphery Colonial model Criticised as too simplistic Resources go to core The existence of the core only occurs because of the periphery Individuals are all consumers Starter: For each theory find three statements from the list on the left that match them.

2 Modernisation World Systems Dependency Based on three regions Theory based on pure capitalism Brain drain takes from periphery Poorer countries will remain poor USA - perfect example Every country will develop Based on core and periphery A critique is that stages can be leapt over Poorer countries will develop over time Different stages of development evident China upsets this theory Poorer countries can break free of dependency Africa is largely exploited in this theory Semi periphery can exploit periphery Colonial model Criticised as too simplistic Resources go to core The existence of the core only occurs because of the periphery Individuals are all consumers Starter: For each theory find three statements from the list on the left that match them. Neo-colonialism C/W 20 th January 2015

3 Starter: For each theory find three statements from the list on the left that match them. Modernisation World Systems Dependency Based on three regions Theory based on pure capitalism Brain drain takes from periphery Poorer countries will remain poor USA - perfect example Every country will develop Based on core and periphery A critique is that stages can be leapt over Poorer countries will develop over time Different stages of development evident China upsets this theory Poorer countries can break free of dependency Africa is largely exploited in this theory Semi periphery can exploit periphery Colonial model Criticised as too simplistic Resources go to core The existence of the core only occurs because of the periphery Individuals are all consumers Neo-colonialism C/W 20 th January 2015

4 Learning Objectives: Understand how superpower rule has changed from colonial rule to indirect neo- colonial rule Assess the mechanisms of neo-colonial control – trade, aid and debt

5 What mechanisms of control are there? These Images can help. How can power be maintained? Mechanism s of Colonial Control

6 What mechanisms of control are there? These Images can help How can power be maintained? Mechanism s of Colonial Control Direct military conquest / occupation of territory Ethnic cleansing of difficult groups Cultural imperialism through art, religion and language Government by dictat, through colonial administrator s Economic imperialism e.g. exporting to the home country Imposition of an alien legal system and ownership rights

7 Era of decolonialisation Independence brought about conflict rather than immediate freedom for 3 main reasons 1.Colonial borders did not match religious or ethnic boundaries = conflict 2.Colonies had a government but indigenous people excluded from running them = lack of experience 3.As colonial powers left, insurgents pushed them out = violence

8 Neo-Colonialism A form of indirect control over developing countries, most of them former colonies Direct political control decreased whilst economic control increased -Economic dependence on primary goods -Economic dominance of multinational companies -Impact of foreign aid and foreign debt

9 How were they being indirectly controlled? 1)Aid Often given with ‘strings attached’ forcing the developing countries to spend it in particular ways 2) Trade Low raw material export prices contrast with high prices that developing countries have to pay for manufactured goods 3) Debt Many developing countries pay huge sums of money to developed countries each year in interest

10 Neo-colonialism? Left-wing geographers argue that superpowers use subtle, indirect ways to maintain power today These ways are often termed neo- colonialism Aid is often given to allies and ‘friends’ rather than the most needy countries (see table), and much aid is ‘tied’ in various ways. Debt repayments channel money from the developing to the developed world Even debt relief schemes, such as the HIPC scheme (see map) have been criticised For HIPC (heavily indebted poor countries) countries to qualify for debt relief, they must follow the economic policies of bankers in the developed world Top 10 Recipients of USA foreign aid 2006 ($ millions) Israel2,520 Egypt1,795 Colombia558 Jordan461 Pakistan698 Peru133 Indonesia158 Kenya213 Bolivia122 Ukraine115 Note the total lack of overlap between the most indebted nations and the top 10 receivers of US aid.

11 Ghana : success or failure? In 1957 gained independence from British Colonial rule. Task 1: Read pg Using table of development indicators for Ghana on p.152. In what ways has Ghana a)Made progress? b)Fallen behind? ‘Using examples, assess the view that the relationship between the developed and the developing world is a neo-colonial one’ (15 marks) THEN


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