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1 Warm-up Part One ENTER

2 Contents Warm-up Money Can’t Buy Everything  Money Idioms 

3 I. Money Can’t Buy Everything
Money Can't Buy Everything by Dennis Justin Fontaine Some people think being rich can buy you happiness. Sure, it can buy you some But, the love I have brings me more happiness than all the money in the world could. Enjoy the poem. To be continued on the next page.

4 To be continued on the next page.
Money Can’t Buy Everything Money Can't Buy Everything by Dennis Justin Fontaine Some people think being rich makes you better than everyone. They think they have a place reserved in heaven. But, that's not something I worry about because, with my love, I am already there. To be continued on the next page.

5 The end of Money Can’t Buy Everything.
Money Can't Buy Everything by Dennis Justin Fontaine In this world money can get you things and it can make you happy, but the love I share with my angel, is more valuable than anything. The end of Money Can’t Buy Everything.

6 To be continued on the next page.
Money Idioms Quiz Someone sold you some gold earrings under the counter. This means ____. A. at a specially low price B. on the black market “I’m afraid we’ll all have to tighten our belts a bit.” This means ____. A. spend less money B. work harder to make more money B. on the black market A. spend less money To be continued on the next page.

7 To be continued on the next page.
Money Idioms Quiz You’re finding it difficult to make ends meet. This means ____. A. you can’t pay your debts B. you’re always short of money Which of these would you like to happen to you? Why? Why not the others? ____. A. To find you are in the red B. To get a sudden windfall C. To pay through the nose for something A. you can’t pay your debts B. To get a sudden windfall To be continued on the next page.

8 Money Idioms Quiz John smashed his new Porsche into a shop window. The damage came to £10,000, and his father had to foot the bill. Who paid for the damage, John or his father? The end of Money Idioms.

9 Part One Warm-up This is the end of Part One. Please click HOME to visit other parts.

10 Background Information
Part Two Background Information ENTER

11 Background information Contents
The US Money Gypsies Lifestyles in America Variety Store Beauty Salon

12 To be continued on the next page.
The US Money Cash: paper currency The US government prints money in the following denominations: $10,000; $5,000; $1,000; $500; $100; $50; $20; $10; $5 and $1. You will never see most of these bills; twenties, tens, fives and ones are the most commonly used. You will find a picture of George Washington on the $1 bill, Abraham Lincoln on the $5, Alexander Hamilton on the $10 and Andrew Jackson on the $20. There are also pictures on the back (the White House on the $20, the Treasury Building on the $10, the Lincoln Memorial on the $5 and a big “ONE” and the American insignia on the $1. To be continued on the next page.

13 To be continued on the next page.
The US Money Money in general is referred to as: “cash”, “bucks”, “dough”, “bread”, “moolah”, “greenbacks”, etc. A one-dollar bill is most often called “a dollar”, “a single”, “a buck” or “a bill”; a five-dollar bill is “five dollars”, “a fiver”, “a five spot” or “five bucks”. A ten-dollar bill might be “a ten”, “ten bucks” or a “ten spot”. To be continued on the next page.

14 To be continued on the next page.
The US Money Cash: coins Coins come in the following denominations: $.01 or 1¢ (a penny, a cent, one cent); $.05 or 5¢ (a nickel, five cents); $.10 or 10¢ (a dime, ten cents); $.25 or 25¢ (a quarter, two bits, twenty-five cents); and $.50 or 50¢ (a fifty-cent piece). Coins are called “change”, “small change”, or “silver” (though they aren’t made of silver anymore). Coins are generally recognized by their size, but somebody “goofed” on the dime, which is smaller than either a nickel or a penny. All the others are in size order. To be continued on the next page.

15 The US Money Cash: coins The end of The US Money.

16 To be continued on the next page.
Gypsies Roma (people), commonly known as Gypsies, a traditionally nomadic people found throughout the world. While the term gypsy is often attached to anyone leading a nomadic life, the Roma share a common biological, cultural, and linguistic heritage that sets them apart as a genuine ethnic group. To be continued on the next page.

17 To be continued on the next page.
Gypsies When they first arrived in Europe over 500 years ago, the Roma were called Gypsies in the mistaken belief that they had come from Egypt. The true origins of the Roma remained a mystery until the late 18th century, when European linguists discovered connections between the Romani language and certain dialects spoken in northwestern India. More recent linguistic and historical studies have confirmed that the Roma originated in India. To be continued on the next page.

18 To be continued on the next page.
Gypsies The world population of Roma is difficult to establish with any certainty. Estimates suggest that there are between approximately 15 and 30 million Roma worldwide. Some 10 million Roma live in Europe, and they make up that continent’s largest minority population. The largest concentrations of Roma are found in the Balkan peninsula of southeastern Europe, in central Europe, and in Russia and the other successor republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Smaller numbers are scattered throughout western Europe, the Middle East, North Africa, and the Americas. The Fortune Teller, Georges La Tour 1632—1635 To be continued on the next page.

19 Gypsies The Roma are divided into groups sometimes referred to as nations or tribes. These divisions generally reflect historical patterns of settlement in different geographic areas. Although historically renowned as wanderers, the vast majority of modern Roma live in settled communities. The end of Gypsies.

20 To be continued on the next page.
Lifestyles in America Lost Generation, group of expatriate American writers residing primarily in Paris during the 1920s and 1930s. The group never formed a cohesive literary movement, but it consisted of many influential American writers, including Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, William Carlos Williams, Thornton Wilder, Archibald MacLeish, and Hart Crane. The group was given its name by the American writer Gertrude Stein to refer to expatriate Americans bitter about their World War I experiences and disillusioned with American society. Hemingway later used the phrase as an epigraph for his novel The Sun Also Rises (1926). Ernest Hemingway To be continued on the next page.

21 To be continued on the next page.
Lifestyles in America The beat generation, group of American writers of the 1950s whose writing expressed profound dissatisfaction with contemporary American society and endorsed an alternative set of values. Its best-known figures were writers Allen Ginsberg and Jack Kerouac, who met as students at Columbia University in the 1940s, and San Francisco-based poet and publisher Lawrence Ferlinghetti. Ferlinghetti’s City Lights Bookstore, in the North Beach section of San Francisco, became a center of Beat culture and remained an enduring symbol of alternative literature into the 1990s. Another center of Beat activity was New York City’s East Village, where Ginsberg made his home. To be continued on the next page.

22 To be continued on the next page.
Lifestyles in America Hippie, member of a youth movement of the late 1960s that was characterized by nonviolent anarchy, concern for the environment, and rejection of Western materialism. Also known as flower power, the hippie movement originated in San Francisco, California. The hippies formed a politically outspoken, antiwar, artistically prolific counterculture in North America and Europe. Their colorful psychedelic style was inspired by drugs such as the hallucinogen Lysergic Acid Diethylamid (LSD). This style emerged in fashion, graphic art, and music by bands such as Love, the Grateful Dead, Jefferson Airplane, and Pink Floyd. To be continued on the next page.

23 The end of Lifestyles in America.
Yuppie, a young upwardly mobile professional person. Yuppies tend to be 9-5 professional workers. Yuppies tend to value material goods (especially trendy new things). In particular this can apply to their stocks, imported automobiles, development houses, and technological gadgets, particularly cell phones. Unfortunately, the fast paced pursuit of these material goods has unintended consequences. Usually in a hurry, they seek convenience goods and services. Being "time poor", their family relations can become difficult to sustain. Maintaining their way of life is mentally exhausting. Sometimes, they will move every few years to where their job goes, straining their family. The fast-paced lifestyle has been termed a rat race. The end of Lifestyles in America.

24 The end of Variety Store.
It refers to a retail store that carries a large variety of usually inexpensive merchandise. The end of Variety Store.

25 Beauty Salon An establishment providing women with services that include hair treatment, manicures, and facials. Also called beauty parlor, beauty shop. The end of Beauty Salon.

26 Background Information
Part Two Background Information This is the end of Part Two. Please click HOME to visit other parts.

27 Part Three Text Appreciation ENTER

28 Text Appreciation Contents I. Text Analysis 1. Theme 2. Structure
3. Further Discussion II. Writing Devices Parody Synecdoche Comparison and Contrast III.Sentence Paraphrase

29 Text Analysis Theme of the Text
By describing the differences of the two sisters’ different lifestyles and experiences from childhood to old age, the author seems to suggest that an exciting life does not necessarily come together with financial security. Instead it depends totally on one’s attitude to life. The end of Theme.

30 Text Analysis Structure of the Text Part 1 (Para. ): 1
Part 2 (Paras ): Part 3 (Paras ): 1 The two sisters’ contrasting financial conditions in old age. 2—19 Recall on every earlier crucial stage of their lives. 20—34 Their reunion in old age and similar opinions they share on life. The end of Structure.

31 To be continued on the next page.
Text Analysis Where does the climax of the story lie? The reunion of the two sisters in their old age, when they, for the first time, seem to share similar opinions on life. To be continued on the next page.

32 To be continued on the next page.
Text Analysis From whose point of view is the story written, Lottie’s or Bess’s? From Lottie’s. Much of the space is devoted to description of Lottie’s opinions, views and reflections. The reader can enter her mind and learn what goes on there. Also from this view, the reader can gain a clear clue about the differences of the two sisters’ lifestyles and experiences. To be continued on the next page.

33 To be continued on the next page.
Text Analysis Both formal and informal expressions are used in the story. Can you tell the differences between them? In the first half of the story and much of the second when Lottie is working wholeheartedly to prepare for her old age, the writer uses more formal words and expressions. But towards the end of the story when Lottie’s lifestyle of “all work and no play” begins to change, she speaks in a very colloquial style. He speech at the end of the story is also a good example. To be continued on the next page.

34 To be continued on the next page.
Text Analysis In Para. 10 Bess had a boy friend in the school band, who had no other ambition except to play a horn. There are also many descriptions of Harry from Para.10 to Para.19. Can you draw a picture of Harry? Did Bess love him? What made it possible for him to be loved so deep? To be continued on the next page.

35 To be continued on the next page.
Text Analysis Can you make a list of words and expressions to describe the differences of the two sisters? Lottie Bess Money never lean Love Family Living standards Job Experiences Others To be continued on the next page.

36 To be continued on the next page.
Text Analysis For what purpose does the author shed a lot of ink describing how Lottie prepared everything for the welcome of Bess’s return? Lottie was eager to show off herself and her life. During the process, Lottie became aware of the distance between her dream and the actual situation. The detailed descriptions lead the reader to a well-prepared readiness to meet the surprise to be displayed by Bess’s indifference. To be continued on the next page.

37 To be continued on the next page.
Text Analysis …, a week of hard work and hard cash. (Para. 21) …, a place in her sister’s home and heart. (Para. 31) What writing devices are used here in the two expressions? What effects do you think they have? Zeugma, alliteration, parallelism are used here to put an emphasis on the inseparable two aspects of the same “week” and “place”. To be continued on the next page.

38 To be continued on the next page.
Text Analysis in Para. 33 What does “the end” imply? Euphemism. “The end” here implies a person’s death. To be continued on the next page.

39 Further Discussion About the Text
Text Analysis Further Discussion About the Text What made young Lottie desire money so much? What was young Lottie’s life dream? Did Lottie ever want to get married? How come she was never tempted to settle down with a home and family? How did Lottie come to be the owner of a house? Is it possible for Lottie to transform into an lady over sixty to lead a life similar to her sister? Why? or why not? To be continued on the next page.

40 Further Discussion About the Text
Text Analysis Further Discussion About the Text What might be young Bess’s life ambition? Did Bess go to college ever? Why or why not? What kind of man did she marry? What was their marriage life probably like? Why was Bess and her husband like gypsies? Was it out of necessity or out of choice? Was it possible for Bess to live peacefully with her sister together till the end of their life? Why or why not? The end of Further Discussion.

41 To be continued on the next page.
Writing Devices Parody What effect do you think it has here? A job in hand was worth two in the future. (Para. 9) A bird in hand is worth two in the woods (saying) To be continued on the next page.

42 To be continued on the next page.
Writing Devices Parody Parody has come to be applied also to the comic imitation of history, fiction, scientific writing, or any other prose. The essence of parody is the treatment of a light theme in the style appropriate to a serious work. The humor lies in the contrast between subject matter and the treatment of it. In parody, the theme and the characters are greatly modified or completely changed, but the style of the original is closely followed in those peculiarities that easily lend themselves to ridicule. More Examples To be continued on the next page.

43 To be continued on the next page.
Writing Devices Parody: more examples 1. Familiarity breeds contempt. (old saying ) Quality breeds success. (ad for Ford ) 2. Necessity is the mother of invention. (from Aesop’s Fable) Failure is the mother of success. To be continued on the next page.

44 Writing Devices (The Star by Jane Taylor)
Parody: more examples 3. Twinkle, twinkle, little star, How I wonder what you’re! Up above the world so high, Like a diamond in the sky. (The Star by Jane Taylor) Twinkle, twinkle, little bat, How I wonder what you’re at! Up above the world you fly Like a teatray in the sky. (from Alice in Wonderland by Lewis Carrol) The end of Parody.

45 To be continued on the next page.
Writing Devices Synecdoche What effect do you think it has here? That Lottie had a doorstep was only because her boss… (Para. 14) a house Synecdoche: figurative locution whereby the part is made to stand for the whole, the whole for a part, the species for the genus, and vice versa To be continued on the next page.

46 To be continued on the next page.
Writing Devices Synecdoche More Examples Thus, in the phrase “50 head of cattle”, ”head” is used to mean whole animals, and in the sentence “The presidents’ administration contained the best brains in the country”, “brains” is used for intellectually brilliant persons. To be continued on the next page.

47 Writing Devices Synecdoche wheels car (infml.)
engine locomotive (a vehicle that pulls a train) mind an intelligent person hand a person who does physical work big mouth a person who talks too much or too loudly; someone who tells secrets loud mouth a person who talks too much or too loudly The end of Synecdoche.

48 Comparison and Contrast
Writing Devices Comparison and Contrast What is a comparison/contrast essay? To compare is to explain the similarities between things; to contrast is to describe their differences. These are two sides of a single coin. Comparison and contrast both emphasize apparent traits, seeing that which is similar and different. Some argue that the essential nature of human thought itself is the process of recognizing similarities and differences between phenomena (Lakoff and Johnson, Metaphors We Live By). Undoubtedly, comparison and contrast is an essential feature of many rhetorical modes, allowing us to describe things, to define things, to analyze things, to make an argument—to do, in fact, almost any kind of writing. To be continued on the next page.

49 Comparison and Contrast
Writing Devices Comparison and Contrast Follow these steps when writing a comparison/contrast essay: 1. Identify similarities and differences. If you have two items to compare or contrast, determine how they are similar and how they are different. You should find at least three points for comparison or contrast. Then write the detailed characteristics for each point. 2.  State your purpose in the thesis sentence. Identify the two subjects that you will compare or contrast and state whether you will focus on similarities, differences, or both. The thesis may also indicate which points you will compare or contrast. To be continued on the next page.

50 Comparison and Contrast
Writing Devices Comparison and Contrast Follow these steps when writing a comparison/contrast essay: 3.  Choose a pattern to organize your essay. The two major patterns for organizing a comparison/contrast essay are Subject by Subject (Whole-to-Whole). Write first about one of your subjects, covering it completely, and then you write about the other, covering it completely. Each subject is addressed in a separate paragraph. The points of comparison or contrast should be the same for each subject and should be presented in the same order. To be continued on the next page.

51 Comparison and Contrast
Writing Devices Comparison and Contrast Follow these steps when writing a comparison/contrast essay: A list of transitions follows: For comparison: like, same, both, the same as, similar, in the same way, most important, similarly, as, too, have in common, as well as For contrast: although, however, differ, unlike, even though, yet, but, instead, on the contrary, on the other hand, whereas, while, unless, contrary to, the reverse W B T L E To be continued on the next page.

52 Comparison and Contrast
Writing Devices Comparison and Contrast Follow these steps when writing a comparison/contrast essay: Point by Point. Each point is addressed in a separate paragraph. Discuss both of your subjects together for each point of comparison and contrast. Maintain consistency by discussing the same subject first for each point. 4. Use appropriate transitions. Transitions are important in comparison/contrast writing, especially with the point by point organization, to avoid confusion. Without transitions, the points you are comparing/contrasting may blur into one another. Also, a variety of transitions prevent monotony. To be continued on the next page.

53 Comparison and Contrast
Writing Devices Comparison and Contrast Follow these steps when writing a comparison/contrast essay: To evaluate the effectiveness of a comparison/ contrast essay, ask the following: Is the essay balanced? The most common error in a comparison/contrast essay is spending too much time on one subject and too little on the other. Make sure the essay equally and thoroughly covers both subjects. To be continued on the next page.

54 Comparison and Contrast
Writing Devices Comparison and Contrast The story is a good example of comparison and contrast. The point-by-point method of organization is employed. Financial conditions in old age: Lottie’s  Bess’s Earlier crucial life stages: Lottie’s  Bess’s Reunion: to share similar opinions on life The device used in the story. The end of Comparison and Contrast.

55 Sentence Paraphrase 1 Over the years Bess had lived each day as if there were no other. (Para. 1) subjunctive mood Over the years in spite of her sister’s urge to prepare for her old age, Bess seized every minute to enjoy herself as if she would die the next day. go to 2

56 Sentence Paraphrase 2 Lottie had a bank account that had never grown lean. (Para. 1) small in amount or quality Lottie always had quite a sum of money deposited in the bank. go to 3

57 Sentence Paraphrase 3 When the dimes began to add up to dollars, she lost her taste for sweets. (Para. 4) to make a total amount of When her savings grew considerably, she was too old to want candy any more. go to 4

58 Sentence Paraphrase 4 But her freshman year found her unable to indulge this fantasy, … (Para. 6) to allow oneself/sb. to have whatever one likes or wants But in her first year at high school, she found that she couldn’t allow herself to spend her money on clothes. go to 5

59 Sentence Paraphrase 5 She made her choice easily. A job in hand was worth two in the future. (Para. 9) parody She made her choice without the slightest hesitation. To have a promising job now was surely far more worthwhile than college. go to 6

60 Sentence Paraphrase 6 Two or three times she was halfway persuaded, but to give up a job that paid well for a homemaking job that paid nothing was a risk she was incapable of taking. (Para. 11) Two or three times, urged by others, she thought seriously about marrying, but she didn’t because that would mean she had to give up a well-paying job and become a housewife/homemaker who didn’t get paid or all the work she did. This was something she couldn’t make herself accepted. go to 7

61 Sentence Paraphrase 7 Bess grieved because she had no child, not having sense enough to know she was better off without them. (Para. 13) to feel extremely sad to be happier without Bess felt sorry that she had no children. She was not sensible and practical enough to know that with children, their conditions would have been worse still. go to 8

62 Sentence Paraphrase 8 Very likely she would have dumped them on Lottie’s doorstep. (Para. 13) to leave or abandon If she had had children, she would very probably have left them with Lottie. go to 9

63 Sentence Paraphrase 9 The years, after forty, began to race. (Para. 17) After one reached forty, one grew old rapidly. go to 10

64 Sentence Paraphrase 10 Lottie, trapped by the blood tie, knew she would have to send Bess money to bring her home. (Para. 20) family relationship caught Though she always disproved of Bess’s way of life, she was well aware that as sisters they were closely related. She knew that she would have to help her out by sending money for her journey home. go to 11

65 Sentence Paraphrase 11 She was having more fun than she had ever had in her life. She was living each hour for itself. (Para. 24) Now she was working for fun not for money. For the first time she was doing something to prepare for her old age, not just to pass the time, etc. go to 12

66 Sentence Paraphrase 12 Her heart raced, and she wondered if the heat from the oven was responsible. (Para. 27) Her heart beat fast and she was not sure whether the heat from the oven caused that. go to 13

67 Sentence Paraphrase 13 Stiffly she suffered Bess’s embrace, her heart racing harder, her eyes suddenly smarting from the onrush of cold air. (Para. 28) unfriendly or very formally hurt with stinging pain She accepted Bess’s warm hug in a formal way. Her heart beat faster and a gust of cold wind stung her eyes. go to 14

68 Sentence Paraphrase 14 Tomorrow she would see the room as it really looked, and Lottie as she really looked, and the warmed-over turkey in its second-day glory. (Para. 31) exaggeration reheated Lottie thought that tomorrow Bess would notice how nice the room was, how smart she looked and how inviting the big turkey was when the remaining part was warmed over and put on the table again. go to 15

69 Sentence Paraphrase 15 She said, “That’s enough about me. How have the years used you?” (Para. 32) to treat sb. in a stated way She said, “I’ve talked enough about myself. How have you been over the years?” go to 16

70 Sentence Paraphrase 16 That’s my life story, a life never lived. Now it’s too near the end to try. (Para. 33) past participle euphemism That’s what I’ve done. I’ve never had the joys, or the sorrows, that life offers. It’s just an existence, not a life. Now I’m too old to learn how to live. go to 17

71 Sentence Paraphrase 17 Don’t count the years that left us. At our time of life it’s the days that count. (Para. 34) to figure emphatic sentence Don’t try to figure out how many years we are going to live. At our age, we must live in terms of days, not years, and spend each day joyfully. The end of Sentence Paraphrase.

72 Part Three Text Appreciation
This is the end of Part Three. Please click HOME to visit other parts.

73 Part Four Language Study ENTER

74 Language Study Contents Word Study Phrases and Expressions
Word Building Grammar

75 Word Study Word list: ambition conscience dump errand expand indulge
lean lumpy miserly onrush 11. sentimental threadbare transform urge worldly

76 Word Study 1. ambition n. a. strong desire, esp. over a long period, for success, power, wealth, etc. b. sth. that is desired in this way Examples: She’s clever but she lacks ambition. He has at last achieved his lifetime ambition of launching a newspaper. ambitious a. an ambitious politician We cooked nothing more ambitious than boiled eggs.

77 To be continued on the next page.
Word Study 2. conscience Word Formation n. person’s awareness of right and wrong with regard to his own thoughts and action a. conscientious cf. Examples: have a clear/guilty conscience He has several murders on his conscience (受到良心的谴责). You cannot in all conscience (的确,凭良心) regard that as fair pay. To be continued on the next page.

78 Word Study cf. a conscientious worker a conscientious attitude
stream of consciousness This essay is a most conscientious piece of work. Are you conscious of how people will regard such behavior?

79 To be continued on the next page.
Word Study 3. dump Examples v. a. to put (sth. unwanted) in a place and leave as rubbish b. to put (sth.) down carelessly, heavily or in a mass c. to leave or abandon (sb.) d. to sell abroad at a very low price To be continued on the next page.

80 Word Study Examples: He dumped his wife and went with another girl.
The government declared that it did not dump radioactive waste at sea. It produces more than it needs, then dumps its surplus onto the world market. Just dump things over there—I’ll sort it out later. c Decide whether the meaning of “dump” is “a”, “b”, “c” or “d”. a d b

81 Word Study 4. errand n. short journey to take a message, get or
deliver goods, etc. If you run errand for sb., you do or get sth. for them, usually be making a short trip somewhere. Examples: Run an errand for me, will you? Go find Roger for me. He was tired of running errands for his sister. an errand of mercy 雪中送炭 a fool’s errand 徒劳无功的差事

82 To be continued on the next page.
Word Study 5. expand cf. 长度、面积或体积等方面的扩张、膨胀,多含有 朝四面八方扩展或延伸之义 Examples: He breathed deeply and expanded his chest. He expanded his operation to include all aspects of the clothing industry. To be continued on the next page.

83 Word Study cf. extend 表示时间、空间或土地等方面的纵向扩展或延续
The cold weather extended into March. The railway has been extended to the next town. spread 多指事物在时间、距离或面积上的扩大或延伸 The various dealers’ prices show a wide spread. There is a tree with a spread of 100 feet. stretch 可指身体上的伸展, 也可指长度或广度上的增长性、 伸缩性 There is not much stretch in this collar; I can hardly get it over my head. She got out of bed and had a very good stretch.

84 Word Study 6. indulge v. to allow oneself/sb. to have whatever one
Word Formation v. to allow oneself/sb. to have whatever one likes or wants Examples: I’m really going to indulge myself tonight with a bottle of champagne. indulge in a long hot bath I shall forget about dieting today. I’m just going to indulge, i.e. eat and drink what I like. a. indulgent n. indulgence

85 Word Study 7. lean thin scant spare meager
Synonyms thin scant spare meager a. a. without much flesh; thin and healthy b. containing no or little fat c. small in amount or quantity; not productive  a lean body  lean beef  lean meat  a lean diet  a lean harvest  a lean year  a lean season for good films cf. a ladder leaning against the wall

86 Word Study 8. lumpy a. full of lumps; covered in lumps Examples:
lumpy gravy 有颗粒的肉汁 a lumpy mattress 有疙瘩的褥垫 a sugar lump break a piece of coal into small lumps a nasty lump on her neck have a lump in one’s throat

87 Word Study 9. miserly a. a miserly person is one who hates
Antonym a. a miserly person is one who hates spending money generous Example: a miserly attitude miser n. A typical miser, he hid his money in the house in various places. cf. They endured hours of backbreaking work in miserable conditions.

88 Word Study 10. onrush n. a strong movement forward
an onrush of cold air cf. an oncoming event a. coming an ongoing program of research a. continuing to exist or progress an onshore breeze a. blowing from the sea towards the land an onslaught on government housing policies n. fierce attack

89 Word Study emotional tender affectionate 11. sentimental
Synonyms emotional tender affectionate a. a. showing or based on tender feelings rather than reasonable or practical judgments b. showing too much of such feelings, esp. of a weak or insincere kind Examples: The necklace was a present from my mother and has sentimental value. I enjoyed this movie but the ending was too sentimental. cf. a sensational murder trial

90 Word Study 12. threadbare a. worn thin; shabby Examples:
a threadbare carpet a threadbare joke cf. bare- without the usual covering or protection bareback a. ad. on a horse without a saddle barefaced a. shameless barefoot(ed) a. ad. without shoes or stockings bareheaded a. ad. not wearing a hat barelegged a. ad. wearing nothing on one’s legs

91 Word Study 13. transform change convert alter
Synonyms 13. transform change convert alter v. to completely change the appearance, form, or character of sth. or sb., esp. in a way that improves it Examples: A steam engine transforms heat into power. Put yourself in the hands of our experts, who will transform your hair and makeup. transformation n. In recent years his ideas have undergone a complete transformation.

92 Word Study 14. urge force drive spur prompt
Synonyms force drive spur prompt v. a. to try very hard to persuade b. to suggest very strongly; draw attention to the importance of or need for c. to drive or force (forward) Examples: They urged us to give our support. They urged on us the need for cooperation. He urged the horses on with a whip. urgent a. urgency n. in urgent need of medical attention a matter of great urgency

93 Word Study earthly 15. worldly a. a. material; not spiritual
b. sophisticated; practical Synonym worldly concerns worldly distractions a worldly person words of worldly wisdom earthly 世俗的心思 世俗的乐趣 老成持重的人 人生的经验之谈 I think it is time you woke up and focused your thoughts on more worldly matters. He was different from anyone I had known, very worldly, very sophisticated. The end of Word Study.

94 Phrases and Expressions
List: add up to be better off without be through go to ruin hard cash kick up one’s heels make no mention of put/set/turn one’s mind to sth.

95 Phrases and Expressions
1. add up to to amount to Examples: The company’s profits last year added up to $50 million. With a meal included in the cost of the ticket, it all adds up to a really good evening’s entertainment. cf. Add your scores up and we’ll see who won. Our explanation seemed only to add to his bewilderment.

96 Phrases and Expressions
2. be better off without to be happier without sb./sth. Example: We’d be better off without them as neighbors. cf. He’d be better off going to the police about it. (be wiser) better late than never better safe than sorry

97 Phrases and Expressions
3. be through a. to have finished doing sth., using sth., etc. b. to be no longer having a relationship with sb. or sth. Examples: I’m not through just yet; I should be finished in an hour. I am through with Jane/alcohol.

98 To be continued on the next page.
Phrases and Expressions 4. go to ruin = fall into ruin “ruin” phrases to become damaged or destroyed because no one is taking care of it Examples: It is his brother who had let the farm go to ruin. The ancient temple had fallen into ruin. To be continued on the next page.

99 Phrases and Expressions
be on the road to ruin be on the brink of ruin in ruin go to rack and ruin 正在走向毁灭 濒临破产、垮台 破败不堪 逐渐破损毁坏

100 To be continued on the next page.
Phrases and Expressions 5. hard cash money in the form of notes and coins as opposed to a cheque or a credit card cf. A hard currency is one that is unlikely to lose its value and so is considered to be a good one to have or to invest in. The government is running short of hard currency to pay for imports. “hard” phrases To be continued on the next page.

101 Phrases and Expressions
cf. a hardback/hardcover book a hard-headed realist a hard-hearted woman hard labor

102 Phrases and Expressions
6. kick up one’s heels to be relaxed and enjoy oneself Example: She’s a workaholic and doesn’t know how to kick up her heels. cf. kick one’s heels (to have nothing to do while waiting for sb./sth.) We’re just kicking our heels until the next semester begins.

103 To be continued on the next page.
Phrases and Expressions 7. make no mention of not to say anything about Examples: He made no mention of having seen her. He made no mention of his wife’s illness to me. “mention” phrases To be continued on the next page.

104 Phrases and Expressions
cf. Don’t mention it. They already take pension and social security payments off my pay, not to mention state taxes. Let’s meet the above-mentioned heroes.

105 To be continued on the next page.
Phrases and Expressions 8. put/set/turn one’s mind to sth. to give all one’s attention to Examples: It won’t take long to sort it out once you put your mind to it. Let’s now turn our minds to tomorrow’s meeting. “mind” phrases To be continued on the next page.

106 The end of Phrases and Expressions.
cf. keep one’s mind on sth.: to continue to pay attention to give one’s mind to sth.: to concentrate on or give all one’s attention to have sth. on one’s mind: to worry about sth. bear/keep sth./sb. in mind: to remember sth./sb. bend one’s mind to sth.: to direct one’s thoughts to sth. bring/call sb./sth. to mind: to recall sb./sth. to one’s memory The end of Phrases and Expressions.

107 Word Building List: Prefix—em Root—form Suffix—ish

108 Word Building em-: the form used for en- embrace before b, m or p
prefix embrace em-: the form used for en- before b, m or p embark embed embellish empower 乘船,搭载 埋入,深留 装饰,布置 授权给,使能

109 Word Building transform form: shape informal formula deformity
root transform form: shape 非正式的 客套语 畸形,残疾 情报,资讯 履行,表演 改革,改善 一律,相同 informal formula deformity information performance reform uniformity

110 The end of Word Building.
suffix lavish -ish: to do 放逐 珍爱,珍惜 减少; 缩小 修饰,润色 繁茂; 盛行 供给,陈设 加装饰; 在食物中加调味料 banish cherish diminish embellish flourish furnish garnish The end of Word Building.

111 To be continued on the next page.
Grammar Purpose Adverbial Examples Purpose is expressed by the infinitive: The infinitive alone In order/ so as + infinitive Infinitive + noun + preposition     To be continued on the next page.

112 To be continued on the next page.
Grammar Purpose Adverbial They stopped to ask the way. She gave up work in order to have more time with the children. She learnt typing in order to help her husband with his work. I need a corkscrew to open this bottle with. To be continued on the next page.

113 To be continued on the next page.
Grammar Purpose Adverbial Clauses of purpose: so that + will/would or can/could + infinitive so that/ in order that + may/might or shall/should + infinitive    Examples To be continued on the next page.

114 To be continued on the next page.
Grammar Purpose Adverbial Ship lifeboats so that the crew can escape if the ship sinks. These men risk their lives in order that we may live more safely. Criminals usually telephone from public telephone boxes so that the police won’t be able to trace the call. To be continued on the next page.

115 To be continued on the next page.
Grammar Purpose Adverbial in case and lest: I’ll make a cake in case someone drops in at the weekend. I carry a spare wheel in case I have/should have a puncture. I always kept candles in the house in case there was a power cut.     He doesn’t/didn’t dare to leave the house lest someone should recognize him. To be continued on the next page.

116 To be continued on the next page.
Grammar Purpose Adverbial Find more examples in the text. ... Bess was still waiting for Harry to earn enough to buy a marriage license. (10) the infinitive She made several attempts to find other employment, but nobody would hire her. (18) the infinitive To be continued on the next page.

117 Grammar Purpose Adverbial
She thought she lived frugally in her middle years so that she could live in comfort when she most needed peace of mind. (16) purpose clause The end of Grammar.

118 Part Four Language Study
This is the end of Part Four. Please click HOME to visit other parts.

119 The Richer, the Poorer

120 Exe. 4 1) are better off 2) had put your mind to 3) go about
4) added up to 5) save for 6) marveled at 7) above all 8) by comparison 9) have anything to do with 10) adds up to 11) go about

121 Exe.5 1) keep her on 2) keep on 3) keep AIDS from 4) Keep out of it
5) keep it up/keep at it 6) keep off 7) keep up with

122 Exe.6 1) terms 2) attention 3) business 4) children
5) his anger, her attempts 6) the furniture 7) errands 8) her embrace, humiliation

123 Exe.7 1) race 比赛 2) hard on sb. 对某人过于为难 3) hard cash 现金
4) hard 很难的;terms 条件 5) passage 行程;航程;旅费 6) passage 通道 7) passage 文章的一段 8) race种族 9) race 跑步比赛

124 Exe.9 1) I think you'll have to depend on your own efforts to overcome the difficulties. 2) We have arranged for you to speak to university students during your visit. 3) The conference called on us to pay special attention to the growing gap between the rich and the poor. 4) The students appealed to the school authorities to improve their living conditions. 5) You can rely on her to find the best solution. 6) More and more people are pleading with their government to stop the bombing.

125 Exe. 10 (1) older/elder (2) took (3) second (4) felt (5) once (6) have
(7) started/began (8) To (9) stay/live (10) job (11) agreed (12) first (13) for

126 Exe. 10 (14) family (15) the (16) before (17) By (18) because (19) US
(20) much (21) point (22) American (23) retain/keep (24) birth (25) does (26) China

127 Exe.2 1) ever 2) constantly 3) always 4) usually 5) all the time
6) normally 7) seldom 8) frequently 9) Occasionally 10) never

128 Exe. 3 2) (1) for pleasure, not for money (2) To stay alive
(3) to relax a bit (4) so as to have trees around them instead of buildings (5) so that children can understand (6) so as not to disturb other guests

129 Exe. 3 2) (7) so as not to be recognized
(8) In order not to put on weight (9) To avoid any mistake (10) in order that you can make your arrangements (11) for their child to go to college (12) for every student to finish the exam

130 Exe. 4 1) that or / 2) Whatever 3) what 4) unless 5) before 6) While
7) as 8) As long as 9) what 10) where 11) where 12) until 13) as if 14) so that

131 Exe. 5 1) by 2) by, from 3) with, since, in
4) from, without, out of, with/of 5) In, In, for, like 6) for, with, at, into 7) about, as, about 8) in, by, Because of, for, for

132 Exe. 6 1) The man who came to see Xiao Liu yesterday is his cousin.
2) In those days, the man was happier than he had ever been in his life. 3) The farmers didn't stop working until darkness fell. Or; The farmers worked until darkness fell. 4) I'm not going to the grocery store today unless you want some milk or something. Or: I'll go to/am going to the grocery store today if you want some milk or something. 5) The family are constantly complaining about one another.

133 Exe. 6 6) Is there any place nearby -where/in -which I can get my laptop fixed quickly? 7) When questioning the driver who caused the accident, the police was quite sure that the driver wasn't telling the truth. 8) Even if I had the money, I wouldn't buy such an expensive thing. 9) Seeing is believing. 10) It is important for college freshmen to plan their time so that they don't waste it.


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