3I. Money Can’t Buy Everything Money Can't Buy Everything by Dennis Justin FontaineSome people thinkbeing rich can buy you happiness.Sure, it can buy you someBut, the love I have brings me more happinessthan all the money in the world could.Enjoy the poem.To be continued on the next page.
4To be continued on the next page. Money Can’t Buy EverythingMoney Can't Buy Everything by Dennis Justin FontaineSome people think being rich makes you better than everyone.They think theyhave a place reserved in heaven.But, that's not something I worry aboutbecause,with my love, I am already there.To be continued on the next page.
5The end of Money Can’t Buy Everything. Money Can't Buy Everything by Dennis Justin FontaineIn this worldmoney can get you things and it can make you happy,but the love I share with my angel,is more valuable than anything.The end of Money Can’t Buy Everything.
6To be continued on the next page. Money IdiomsQuizSomeone sold you some gold earrings under the counter. This means ____.A. at a specially low priceB. on the black market“I’m afraid we’ll all have to tighten our belts a bit.” This means ____.A. spend less moneyB. work harder to make more moneyB. on the black marketA. spend less moneyTo be continued on the next page.
7To be continued on the next page. Money IdiomsQuizYou’re finding it difficult to make ends meet. This means ____.A. you can’t pay your debtsB. you’re always short of moneyWhich of these would you like to happen to you? Why? Why not the others? ____.A. To find you are in the redB. To get a sudden windfallC. To pay through the nose for somethingA. you can’t pay your debtsB. To get a sudden windfallTo be continued on the next page.
8Money IdiomsQuizJohn smashed his new Porsche into a shop window. The damage came to £10,000, and his father had to foot the bill.Who paid for the damage, John or his father?The end of Money Idioms.
9Part OneWarm-upThis is the end of Part One. Please click HOME to visit other parts.
10Background Information Part TwoBackground InformationENTER
11Background information Contents The US MoneyGypsiesLifestyles in AmericaVariety StoreBeauty Salon
12To be continued on the next page. The US MoneyCash: paper currencyThe US government prints money in the following denominations: $10,000; $5,000; $1,000; $500; $100; $50; $20; $10; $5 and $1.You will never see most of these bills; twenties, tens, fives and ones are the most commonly used. You will find a picture of George Washington on the $1 bill, Abraham Lincoln on the $5, Alexander Hamilton on the $10 and Andrew Jackson on the $20. There are also pictures on the back (the White House on the $20, the Treasury Building on the $10, the Lincoln Memorial on the $5 and a big “ONE” and the American insignia on the $1.To be continued on the next page.
13To be continued on the next page. The US MoneyMoney in general is referred to as: “cash”, “bucks”, “dough”, “bread”, “moolah”, “greenbacks”, etc. A one-dollar bill is most often called “a dollar”, “a single”, “a buck” or “a bill”; a five-dollar bill is “five dollars”, “a fiver”, “a five spot” or “five bucks”. A ten-dollar bill might be “a ten”, “ten bucks” or a “ten spot”.To be continued on the next page.
14To be continued on the next page. The US MoneyCash: coinsCoins come in the following denominations: $.01 or 1¢ (a penny, a cent, one cent); $.05 or 5¢ (a nickel, five cents); $.10 or 10¢ (a dime, ten cents); $.25 or 25¢ (a quarter, two bits, twenty-five cents); and $.50 or 50¢ (a fifty-cent piece).Coins are called “change”, “small change”, or “silver” (though they aren’t made of silver anymore). Coins are generally recognized by their size, but somebody “goofed” on the dime, which is smaller than either a nickel or a penny. All the others are in size order.To be continued on the next page.
16To be continued on the next page. GypsiesRoma (people), commonly known as Gypsies, a traditionally nomadic people found throughout the world. While the term gypsy is often attached to anyone leading a nomadic life, the Roma share a common biological, cultural, and linguistic heritage that sets them apart as a genuine ethnic group.To be continued on the next page.
17To be continued on the next page. GypsiesWhen they first arrived in Europe over 500 years ago, the Roma were called Gypsies in the mistaken belief that they had come from Egypt. The true origins of the Roma remained a mystery until the late 18th century, when European linguists discovered connections between the Romani language and certain dialects spoken in northwestern India. More recent linguistic and historical studies have confirmed that the Roma originated in India.To be continued on the next page.
18To be continued on the next page. GypsiesThe world population of Roma is difficult to establish with any certainty. Estimates suggest that there are between approximately 15 and 30 million Roma worldwide. Some 10 million Roma live in Europe, and they make up that continent’s largest minority population. The largest concentrations of Roma are found in the Balkan peninsula of southeastern Europe, in central Europe, and in Russia and the other successor republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Smaller numbers are scattered throughout western Europe, the Middle East, North Africa, and the Americas.The Fortune Teller, Georges La Tour 1632—1635To be continued on the next page.
19GypsiesThe Roma are divided into groups sometimes referred to as nations or tribes. These divisions generally reflect historical patterns of settlement in different geographic areas. Although historically renowned as wanderers, the vast majority of modern Roma live in settled communities.The end of Gypsies.
20To be continued on the next page. Lifestyles in AmericaLost Generation, group of expatriate American writers residing primarily in Paris during the 1920s and 1930s. The group never formed a cohesive literary movement, but it consisted of many influential American writers, including Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, William Carlos Williams, Thornton Wilder, Archibald MacLeish, and Hart Crane. The group was given its name by the American writer Gertrude Stein to refer to expatriate Americans bitter about their World War I experiences and disillusioned with American society. Hemingway later used the phrase as an epigraph for his novel The Sun Also Rises (1926).Ernest HemingwayTo be continued on the next page.
21To be continued on the next page. Lifestyles in AmericaThe beat generation, group of American writers of the 1950s whose writing expressed profound dissatisfaction with contemporary American society and endorsed an alternative set of values. Its best-known figures were writers Allen Ginsberg and Jack Kerouac, who met as students at Columbia University in the 1940s, and San Francisco-based poet and publisher Lawrence Ferlinghetti. Ferlinghetti’s City Lights Bookstore, in the North Beach section of San Francisco, became a center of Beat culture and remained an enduring symbol of alternative literature into the 1990s. Another center of Beat activity was New York City’s East Village, where Ginsberg made his home.To be continued on the next page.
22To be continued on the next page. Lifestyles in AmericaHippie, member of a youth movement of the late 1960s that was characterized by nonviolent anarchy, concern for the environment, and rejection of Western materialism. Also known as flower power, the hippie movement originated in San Francisco, California. The hippies formed a politically outspoken, antiwar, artistically prolific counterculture in North America and Europe. Their colorful psychedelic style was inspired by drugs such as the hallucinogen Lysergic Acid Diethylamid (LSD). This style emerged in fashion, graphic art, and music by bands such as Love, the Grateful Dead, Jefferson Airplane, and Pink Floyd.To be continued on the next page.
23The end of Lifestyles in America. Yuppie, a young upwardly mobile professional person. Yuppies tend to be 9-5 professional workers. Yuppies tend to value material goods (especially trendy new things). In particular this can apply to their stocks, imported automobiles, development houses, and technological gadgets, particularly cell phones. Unfortunately, the fast paced pursuit of these material goods has unintended consequences. Usually in a hurry, they seek convenience goods and services. Being "time poor", their family relations can become difficult to sustain. Maintaining their way of life is mentally exhausting. Sometimes, they will move every few years to where their job goes, straining their family. The fast-paced lifestyle has been termed a rat race.The end of Lifestyles in America.
24The end of Variety Store. It refers to a retail store that carries a large variety of usually inexpensive merchandise.The end of Variety Store.
25Beauty SalonAn establishment providing women with services that include hair treatment, manicures, and facials. Also called beauty parlor, beauty shop.The end of Beauty Salon.
26Background Information Part TwoBackground InformationThis is the end of Part Two. Please click HOME to visit other parts.
28Text Appreciation Contents I. Text Analysis 1. Theme 2. Structure 3. Further DiscussionII. Writing DevicesParodySynecdocheComparison and ContrastIII.Sentence Paraphrase
29Text Analysis Theme of the Text By describing the differences of the two sisters’ different lifestyles and experiences from childhood to old age, the author seems to suggest that an exciting life does not necessarily come together with financial security. Instead it depends totally on one’s attitude to life.The end of Theme.
30Text Analysis Structure of the Text Part 1 (Para. ): 1 Part 2 (Paras ):Part 3 (Paras ):1The two sisters’ contrasting financial conditions in old age.2—19Recall on every earlier crucial stage of their lives.20—34Their reunion in old age and similar opinions they share on life.The end of Structure.
31To be continued on the next page. Text AnalysisWhere does the climax of the storylie?The reunion of the two sisters in their old age, when they, for the first time, seem to share similar opinions on life.To be continued on the next page.
32To be continued on the next page. Text AnalysisFrom whose point of view is thestory written, Lottie’s or Bess’s?From Lottie’s. Much of the space is devoted to description of Lottie’s opinions, views and reflections. The reader can enter her mind and learn what goes on there. Also from this view, the reader can gain a clear clue about the differences of the two sisters’ lifestyles and experiences.To be continued on the next page.
33To be continued on the next page. Text AnalysisBoth formal and informal expressionsare used in the story. Can you tell thedifferences between them?In the first half of the story and much of the second when Lottie is working wholeheartedlyto prepare for her old age, the writer uses more formal words and expressions. But towards the end of the story when Lottie’s lifestyle of “all work and no play” begins to change, she speaks in a very colloquial style. He speech at the end of the story is also a good example.To be continued on the next page.
34To be continued on the next page. Text AnalysisIn Para. 10Bess had a boy friend in the school band, who had no other ambition except to play a horn.There are also many descriptions of Harry from Para.10 to Para.19. Can you draw a picture of Harry? Did Bess love him? What made it possible for him to be loved so deep?To be continued on the next page.
35To be continued on the next page. Text AnalysisCan you make a list of words andexpressions to describe the differencesof the two sisters?LottieBessMoneynever lean…LoveFamilyLiving standardsJobExperiencesOthersTo be continued on the next page.
36To be continued on the next page. Text AnalysisFor what purpose does the author sheda lot of ink describing how Lottieprepared everything for the welcomeof Bess’s return?Lottie was eager to show off herself and her life.During the process, Lottie became aware of thedistance between her dream and the actual situation.The detailed descriptions lead the reader to awell-prepared readiness to meet the surprise to bedisplayed by Bess’s indifference.To be continued on the next page.
37To be continued on the next page. Text Analysis…, a week of hard work and hard cash. (Para. 21)…, a place in her sister’s home and heart. (Para. 31)What writing devices are used here in the two expressions? What effects do you think they have?Zeugma, alliteration, parallelism are used here to put an emphasis on the inseparable two aspects of the same “week” and “place”.To be continued on the next page.
38To be continued on the next page. Text Analysisin Para. 33What does “the end” imply?Euphemism. “The end” here implies a person’s death.To be continued on the next page.
39Further Discussion About the Text Text AnalysisFurther Discussion About the TextWhat made young Lottie desire money so much?What was young Lottie’s life dream?Did Lottie ever want to get married? How come she was never tempted to settle down with a home and family?How did Lottie come to be the owner of a house?Is it possible for Lottie to transform into an lady over sixty to lead a life similar to her sister? Why? or why not?To be continued on the next page.
40Further Discussion About the Text Text AnalysisFurther Discussion About the TextWhat might be young Bess’s life ambition?Did Bess go to college ever? Why or why not?What kind of man did she marry? What was their marriage life probably like?Why was Bess and her husband like gypsies? Was it out of necessity or out of choice?Was it possible for Bess to live peacefully with her sister together till the end of their life? Why or why not?The end of Further Discussion.
41To be continued on the next page. Writing DevicesParodyWhat effect do you think it has here?A job in hand was worth two in the future. (Para. 9)A bird in hand is worth two in thewoods (saying)To be continued on the next page.
42To be continued on the next page. Writing DevicesParodyParody has come to be applied also to the comic imitation of history, fiction, scientific writing, or any other prose. The essence of parody is the treatment of a light theme in the style appropriate to a serious work.The humor lies in the contrast between subject matter and the treatment of it.In parody, the theme and the characters are greatly modified or completely changed, but the style of the original is closely followed in those peculiarities that easily lend themselves to ridicule.More ExamplesTo be continued on the next page.
43To be continued on the next page. Writing DevicesParody: more examples1. Familiarity breeds contempt. (old saying )Quality breeds success. (ad for Ford )2. Necessity is the mother of invention.(from Aesop’s Fable)Failure is the mother of success.To be continued on the next page.
44Writing Devices (The Star by Jane Taylor) Parody: more examples3. Twinkle, twinkle, little star,How I wonder what you’re!Up above the world so high,Like a diamond in the sky.(The Star by Jane Taylor)Twinkle, twinkle, little bat,How I wonder what you’re at!Up above the world you flyLike a teatray in the sky.(from Alice in Wonderland by Lewis Carrol)The end of Parody.
45To be continued on the next page. Writing DevicesSynecdocheWhat effect do you think it has here?That Lottie had a doorstep was only because her boss… (Para. 14)a houseSynecdoche:figurative locution whereby the part is made to stand for the whole, the whole for a part, the species for the genus, and vice versaTo be continued on the next page.
46To be continued on the next page. Writing DevicesSynecdocheMore ExamplesThus, in the phrase “50 head of cattle”, ”head” is used to mean whole animals, and in the sentence “The presidents’ administration contained the best brains in the country”, “brains” is used for intellectually brilliant persons.To be continued on the next page.
47Writing Devices Synecdoche wheels car (infml.) engine locomotive (a vehicle that pulls a train)mind an intelligent personhand a person who does physical workbig mouth a person who talks too much ortoo loudly; someone who tells secretsloud mouth a person who talks too much ortoo loudlyThe end of Synecdoche.
48Comparison and Contrast Writing DevicesComparison and ContrastWhat is a comparison/contrast essay?To compare is to explain the similarities between things; to contrast is to describe their differences. These are two sides of a single coin. Comparison and contrast both emphasize apparent traits, seeing that which is similar and different. Some argue that the essential nature of human thought itself is the process of recognizing similarities and differences between phenomena (Lakoff and Johnson, Metaphors We Live By). Undoubtedly, comparison and contrast is an essential feature of many rhetorical modes, allowing us to describe things, to define things, to analyze things, to make an argument—to do, in fact, almost any kind of writing.To be continued on the next page.
49Comparison and Contrast Writing DevicesComparison and ContrastFollow these steps when writing a comparison/contrast essay:1. Identify similarities and differences. If you have two items to compare or contrast, determine how they are similar and how they are different. You should find at least three points for comparison or contrast. Then write the detailed characteristics for each point.2. State your purpose in the thesis sentence. Identify the two subjects that you will compare or contrast and state whether you will focus on similarities, differences, or both. The thesis may also indicate which points you will compare or contrast.To be continued on the next page.
50Comparison and Contrast Writing DevicesComparison and ContrastFollow these steps when writing a comparison/contrast essay:3. Choose a pattern to organize your essay. The two major patterns for organizing a comparison/contrast essay areSubject by Subject (Whole-to-Whole). Write first about one of your subjects, covering it completely, and then you write about the other, covering it completely. Each subject is addressed in a separate paragraph. The points of comparison or contrast should be the same for each subject and should be presented in the same order.To be continued on the next page.
51Comparison and Contrast Writing DevicesComparison and ContrastFollow these steps when writing a comparison/contrast essay:A list of transitions follows:For comparison: like, same, both, the same as, similar, in the same way, most important, similarly, as, too, have in common, as well asFor contrast: although, however, differ, unlike, even though, yet, but, instead, on the contrary, on the other hand, whereas, while, unless, contrary to, the reverseWBTLETo be continued on the next page.
52Comparison and Contrast Writing DevicesComparison and ContrastFollow these steps when writing a comparison/contrast essay:Point by Point. Each point is addressed in a separate paragraph. Discuss both of your subjects together for each point of comparison and contrast. Maintain consistency by discussing the same subject first for each point.4. Use appropriate transitions. Transitions are important in comparison/contrast writing, especially with the point by point organization, to avoid confusion. Without transitions, the points you are comparing/contrasting may blur into one another. Also, a variety of transitions prevent monotony.To be continued on the next page.
53Comparison and Contrast Writing DevicesComparison and ContrastFollow these steps when writing a comparison/contrast essay:To evaluate the effectiveness of a comparison/ contrast essay, ask the following:Is the essay balanced? The most common error in a comparison/contrast essay is spending too much time on one subject and too little on the other. Make sure the essay equally and thoroughly covers both subjects.To be continued on the next page.
54Comparison and Contrast Writing DevicesComparison and ContrastThe story is a good example of comparison and contrast. The point-by-point method of organization is employed.Financial conditions in old age: Lottie’s Bess’sEarlier crucial life stages: Lottie’s Bess’sReunion: to share similar opinions on lifeThe device used in the story.The end of Comparison and Contrast.
55Sentence Paraphrase 1Over the years Bess had lived each day as if there were no other. (Para. 1)subjunctive moodOver the years in spite of her sister’s urge to prepare for her old age, Bess seized every minute to enjoy herself as if she would die the next day.go to 2
56Sentence Paraphrase 2Lottie had a bank account that had never grown lean. (Para. 1)small in amount or qualityLottie always had quite a sum of money deposited in the bank.go to 3
57Sentence Paraphrase 3When the dimes began to add up to dollars, she lost her taste for sweets. (Para. 4)to make a total amount ofWhen her savings grew considerably, she was too old to want candy any more.go to 4
58Sentence Paraphrase 4But her freshman year found her unable to indulge this fantasy, … (Para. 6)to allow oneself/sb. to have whatever one likes or wantsBut in her first year at high school, she found that she couldn’t allow herself to spend her money on clothes.go to 5
59Sentence Paraphrase 5She made her choice easily. A job in hand was worth two in the future. (Para. 9)parodyShe made her choice without the slightest hesitation. To have a promising job now was surely far more worthwhile than college.go to 6
60Sentence Paraphrase 6Two or three times she was halfway persuaded, but to give up a job that paid well for a homemaking job that paid nothing was a risk she was incapable of taking. (Para. 11)Two or three times, urged by others, she thought seriously about marrying, but she didn’t because that would mean she had to give up a well-paying job and become a housewife/homemaker who didn’t get paid or all the work she did. This was something she couldn’t make herself accepted.go to 7
61Sentence Paraphrase 7Bess grieved because she had no child, not having sense enough to know she was better off without them. (Para. 13)to feel extremely sadto be happier withoutBess felt sorry that she had no children. She was not sensible and practical enough to know that with children, their conditions would have been worse still.go to 8
62Sentence Paraphrase 8Very likely she would have dumped them on Lottie’s doorstep. (Para. 13)to leave or abandonIf she had had children, she would very probably have left them with Lottie.go to 9
63Sentence Paraphrase 9The years, after forty, began to race. (Para. 17)After one reached forty, one grew old rapidly.go to 10
64Sentence Paraphrase 10Lottie, trapped by the blood tie, knew she would have to send Bess money to bring her home. (Para. 20)family relationshipcaughtThough she always disproved of Bess’s way of life, she was well aware that as sisters they were closely related. She knew that she would have to help her out by sending money for her journey home.go to 11
65Sentence Paraphrase 11She was having more fun than she had ever had in her life. She was living each hour for itself. (Para. 24)Now she was working for fun not for money. For the first time she was doing something to prepare for her old age, not just to pass the time, etc.go to 12
66Sentence Paraphrase 12Her heart raced, and she wondered if the heat from the oven was responsible. (Para. 27)Her heart beat fast and she was not sure whether the heat from the oven caused that.go to 13
67Sentence Paraphrase 13Stiffly she suffered Bess’s embrace, her heart racing harder, her eyes suddenly smarting from the onrush of cold air. (Para. 28)unfriendly or very formallyhurt with stinging painShe accepted Bess’s warm hug in a formal way. Her heart beat faster and a gust of cold wind stung her eyes.go to 14
68Sentence Paraphrase 14Tomorrow she would see the room as it really looked, and Lottie as she really looked, and the warmed-over turkey in its second-day glory. (Para. 31)exaggerationreheatedLottie thought that tomorrow Bess would notice how nice the room was, how smart she looked and how inviting the big turkey was when the remaining part was warmed over and put on the table again.go to 15
69Sentence Paraphrase 15She said, “That’s enough about me. How have the years used you?” (Para. 32)to treat sb. in a stated wayShe said, “I’ve talked enough about myself. How have you been over the years?”go to 16
70Sentence Paraphrase 16That’s my life story, a life never lived. Now it’s too near the end to try. (Para. 33)past participleeuphemismThat’s what I’ve done. I’ve never had the joys, or the sorrows, that life offers. It’s just an existence, not a life. Now I’m too old to learn how to live.go to 17
71Sentence Paraphrase 17Don’t count the years that left us. At our time of life it’s the days that count. (Para. 34)to figureemphaticsentenceDon’t try to figure out how many years we are going to live. At our age, we must live in terms of days, not years, and spend each day joyfully.The end of Sentence Paraphrase.
72Part Three Text Appreciation This is the end of Part Three. Please click HOME to visit other parts.
74Language Study Contents Word Study Phrases and Expressions Word BuildingGrammar
75Word Study Word list: ambition conscience dump errand expand indulge leanlumpymiserlyonrush11. sentimentalthreadbaretransformurgeworldly
76Word Study1. ambitionn. a. strong desire, esp. over a long period, forsuccess, power, wealth, etc.b. sth. that is desired in this wayExamples:She’s clever but she lacks ambition.He has at last achieved his lifetime ambition of launching a newspaper.ambitious a.an ambitious politicianWe cooked nothing more ambitious than boiled eggs.
77To be continued on the next page. Word Study2. conscienceWord Formationn. person’s awareness of right and wrong with regard to his own thoughts and actiona. conscientiouscf.Examples:have a clear/guilty conscienceHe has several murders on his conscience (受到良心的谴责).You cannot in all conscience (的确，凭良心) regard that as fair pay.To be continued on the next page.
78Word Study cf. a conscientious worker a conscientious attitude stream of consciousnessThis essay is a most conscientious piece of work.Are you conscious of how people will regard such behavior?
79To be continued on the next page. Word Study3. dumpExamplesv. a. to put (sth. unwanted) in a place and leave as rubbishb. to put (sth.) down carelessly, heavily or in a massc. to leave or abandon (sb.)d. to sell abroad at a very low priceTo be continued on the next page.
80Word Study Examples: He dumped his wife and went with another girl. The government declared that it did not dump radioactive waste at sea.It produces more than it needs, then dumps its surplus onto the world market.Just dump things over there—I’ll sort it out later.cDecide whether the meaning of “dump” is “a”, “b”, “c” or “d”.adb
81Word Study 4. errand n. short journey to take a message, get or deliver goods, etc.If you run errand for sb., you do or get sth. for them, usually be making a short trip somewhere.Examples:Run an errand for me, will you? Go find Roger for me.He was tired of running errands for his sister.an errand of mercy 雪中送炭a fool’s errand 徒劳无功的差事
82To be continued on the next page. Word Study5. expandcf.长度、面积或体积等方面的扩张、膨胀，多含有朝四面八方扩展或延伸之义Examples:He breathed deeply and expanded his chest.He expanded his operation to include all aspects of the clothing industry.To be continued on the next page.
83Word Study cf. extend 表示时间、空间或土地等方面的纵向扩展或延续 The cold weather extended into March.The railway has been extended to the next town.spread 多指事物在时间、距离或面积上的扩大或延伸The various dealers’ prices show a wide spread.There is a tree with a spread of 100 feet.stretch 可指身体上的伸展， 也可指长度或广度上的增长性、伸缩性There is not much stretch in this collar; I can hardly get it over my head.She got out of bed and had a very good stretch.
84Word Study 6. indulge v. to allow oneself/sb. to have whatever one Word Formationv. to allow oneself/sb. to have whatever onelikes or wantsExamples:I’m really going to indulge myself tonight with a bottle of champagne.indulge in a long hot bathI shall forget about dieting today. I’m just going to indulge, i.e. eat and drink what I like.a. indulgentn. indulgence
85Word Study 7. lean thin scant spare meager Synonymsthinscantsparemeagera. a. without much flesh; thin and healthyb. containing no or little fatc. small in amount or quantity;not productive a lean body lean beef lean meat a lean diet a lean harvest a lean year a lean season for good filmscf.a ladder leaning against the wall
86Word Study 8. lumpy a. full of lumps; covered in lumps Examples: lumpy gravy 有颗粒的肉汁a lumpy mattress 有疙瘩的褥垫a sugar lumpbreak a piece of coal into small lumpsa nasty lump on her neckhave a lump in one’s throat
87Word Study 9. miserly a. a miserly person is one who hates Antonyma. a miserly person is one who hatesspending moneygenerousExample:a miserly attitudemiser n.A typical miser, he hid his money in the house in various places.cf.They endured hours of backbreaking work in miserable conditions.
88Word Study 10. onrush n. a strong movement forward an onrush of cold aircf.an oncoming event a. comingan ongoing program of researcha. continuing to exist or progressan onshore breezea. blowing from the sea towards thelandan onslaught on government housingpoliciesn. fierce attack
89Word Study emotional tender affectionate 11. sentimental Synonymsemotionaltenderaffectionatea. a. showing or based on tender feelingsrather than reasonable or practicaljudgmentsb. showing too much of such feelings,esp. of a weak or insincere kindExamples:The necklace was a present from my mother and has sentimental value.I enjoyed this movie but the ending was too sentimental.cf.a sensational murder trial
90Word Study 12. threadbare a. worn thin; shabby Examples: a threadbare carpeta threadbare jokecf.bare- without the usual covering or protectionbareback a. ad. on a horse without a saddlebarefaced a. shamelessbarefoot(ed) a. ad. without shoes or stockingsbareheaded a. ad. not wearing a hatbarelegged a. ad. wearing nothing on one’s legs
91Word Study 13. transform change convert alter Synonyms13. transformchangeconvertalterv. to completely change the appearance,form, or character of sth. or sb., esp. ina way that improves itExamples:A steam engine transforms heat into power.Put yourself in the hands of our experts, who will transform your hair and makeup.transformation n.In recent years his ideas have undergone a complete transformation.
92Word Study 14. urge force drive spur prompt Synonymsforcedrivespurpromptv. a. to try very hard to persuadeb. to suggest very strongly; draw attentionto the importance of or need forc. to drive or force (forward)Examples:They urged us to give our support.They urged on us the need for cooperation.He urged the horses on with a whip.urgent a. urgency n.in urgent need of medical attentiona matter of great urgency
93Word Study earthly 15. worldly a. a. material; not spiritual b. sophisticated; practicalSynonymworldly concernsworldly distractionsa worldly personwords of worldly wisdomearthly世俗的心思世俗的乐趣老成持重的人人生的经验之谈I think it is time you woke up and focusedyour thoughts on more worldly matters.He was different from anyone I had known,very worldly, very sophisticated.The end of Word Study.
94Phrases and Expressions List:add up tobe better off withoutbe throughgo to ruinhard cashkick up one’s heelsmake no mention ofput/set/turn one’s mind to sth.
95Phrases and Expressions 1. add up toto amount toExamples:The company’s profits last year added up to $50 million.With a meal included in the cost of the ticket, it all adds up to a really good evening’s entertainment.cf.Add your scores up and we’ll see who won.Our explanation seemed only to add to his bewilderment.
96Phrases and Expressions 2. be better off withoutto be happier without sb./sth.Example:We’d be better off without them as neighbors.cf.He’d be better off going to the police about it. (be wiser)better late than neverbetter safe than sorry
97Phrases and Expressions 3. be througha. to have finished doing sth., using sth.,etc.b. to be no longer having a relationshipwith sb. or sth.Examples:I’m not through just yet; I should befinished in an hour.I am through with Jane/alcohol.
98To be continued on the next page. Phrases and Expressions4. go to ruin = fall into ruin“ruin” phrasesto become damaged or destroyed because no one is taking care of itExamples:It is his brother who had let the farm go to ruin.The ancient temple had fallen into ruin.To be continued on the next page.
99Phrases and Expressions be on the road to ruinbe on the brink of ruinin ruingo to rack and ruin正在走向毁灭濒临破产、垮台破败不堪逐渐破损毁坏
100To be continued on the next page. Phrases and Expressions5. hard cashmoney in the form of notes and coins asopposed to a cheque or a credit cardcf.A hard currency is one that is unlikely to loseits value and so is considered to be a good oneto have or to invest in.The government is running short of hardcurrency to pay for imports.“hard” phrasesTo be continued on the next page.
102Phrases and Expressions 6. kick up one’s heelsto be relaxed and enjoy oneselfExample:She’s a workaholic and doesn’t know howto kick up her heels.cf.kick one’s heels (to have nothing to do whilewaiting for sb./sth.)We’re just kicking our heels until the nextsemester begins.
103To be continued on the next page. Phrases and Expressions7. make no mention ofnot to say anything aboutExamples:He made no mention of having seen her.He made no mention of his wife’s illness to me.“mention” phrasesTo be continued on the next page.
104Phrases and Expressions cf.Don’t mention it.They already take pension andsocial security payments off mypay, not to mention state taxes.Let’s meet the above-mentionedheroes.
105To be continued on the next page. Phrases and Expressions8. put/set/turn one’s mind to sth.to give all one’s attention toExamples:It won’t take long to sort it out once you put your mind to it.Let’s now turn our minds to tomorrow’s meeting.“mind” phrasesTo be continued on the next page.
106The end of Phrases and Expressions. cf.keep one’s mind on sth.:to continue to pay attention togive one’s mind to sth.:to concentrate on or give all one’s attention tohave sth. on one’s mind:to worry about sth.bear/keep sth./sb. in mind:to remember sth./sb.bend one’s mind to sth.:to direct one’s thoughts to sth.bring/call sb./sth. to mind:to recall sb./sth. to one’s memoryThe end of Phrases and Expressions.
108Word Building em-: the form used for en- embrace before b, m or p prefixembraceem-: the form used for en-before b, m or pembarkembedembellishempower乘船，搭载埋入，深留装饰，布置授权给，使能
109Word Building transform form: shape informal formula deformity roottransformform: shape非正式的客套语畸形，残疾情报，资讯履行，表演改革，改善一律，相同informalformuladeformityinformationperformancereformuniformity
110The end of Word Building. suffixlavish-ish: to do放逐珍爱，珍惜减少; 缩小修饰，润色繁茂; 盛行供给，陈设加装饰; 在食物中加调味料banishcherishdiminishembellishflourishfurnishgarnishThe end of Word Building.
111To be continued on the next page. GrammarPurpose AdverbialExamplesPurpose is expressed by the infinitive:The infinitive aloneIn order/ so as + infinitiveInfinitive + noun + preposition To be continued on the next page.
112To be continued on the next page. GrammarPurpose AdverbialThey stopped to ask the way.She gave up work in order to have more time with the children.She learnt typing in order to help her husband with his work.I need a corkscrew to open this bottle with.To be continued on the next page.
113To be continued on the next page. GrammarPurpose AdverbialClauses of purpose:so that + will/would or can/could + infinitiveso that/ in order that + may/might or shall/should + infinitive ExamplesTo be continued on the next page.
114To be continued on the next page. GrammarPurpose AdverbialShip lifeboats so that the crew can escape if the ship sinks.These men risk their lives in order that we may live more safely.Criminals usually telephone from public telephone boxes so that the police won’t be able to trace the call.To be continued on the next page.
115To be continued on the next page. GrammarPurpose Adverbialin case and lest:I’ll make a cake in case someone drops in at the weekend.I carry a spare wheel in case I have/should have a puncture.I always kept candles in the house in case there was a power cut. He doesn’t/didn’t dare to leave the house lest someone should recognize him.To be continued on the next page.
116To be continued on the next page. GrammarPurpose AdverbialFind more examples in the text.... Bess was still waiting for Harry to earn enough to buy a marriage license. (10)the infinitiveShe made several attempts to find other employment, but nobody would hire her. (18)the infinitiveTo be continued on the next page.
117Grammar Purpose Adverbial She thought she lived frugally in her middle years so that she could live in comfort when she most needed peace of mind. (16)purpose clauseThe end of Grammar.
118Part Four Language Study This is the end of Part Four. Please click HOME to visit other parts.
120Exe. 4 1) are better off 2) had put your mind to 3) go about 4) added up to5) save for6) marveled at7) above all8) by comparison9) have anything to do with10) adds up to11) go about
121Exe.5 1) keep her on 2) keep on 3) keep AIDS from 4) Keep out of it 5) keep it up/keep at it6) keep off7) keep up with
122Exe.6 1) terms 2) attention 3) business 4) children 5) his anger, her attempts6) the furniture7) errands8) her embrace, humiliation
123Exe.7 1) race 比赛 2) hard on sb. 对某人过于为难 3) hard cash 现金 4) hard 很难的；terms 条件5) passage 行程；航程；旅费6) passage 通道7) passage 文章的一段8) race种族9) race 跑步比赛
124Exe.91) I think you'll have to depend on your own efforts to overcome the difficulties.2) We have arranged for you to speak to university students during your visit.3) The conference called on us to pay special attention to the growing gap between the rich and the poor.4) The students appealed to the school authorities to improve their living conditions.5) You can rely on her to find the best solution.6) More and more people are pleading with their government to stop the bombing.
125Exe. 10 (1) older/elder (2) took (3) second (4) felt (5) once (6) have (7) started/began(8) To(9) stay/live(10) job(11) agreed(12) first(13) for
126Exe. 10 (14) family (15) the (16) before (17) By (18) because (19) US (20) much(21) point(22) American(23) retain/keep(24) birth(25) does(26) China
127Exe.2 1) ever 2) constantly 3) always 4) usually 5) all the time 6) normally7) seldom8) frequently9) Occasionally10) never
128Exe. 3 2) (1) for pleasure, not for money (2) To stay alive (3) to relax a bit(4) so as to have trees around them instead of buildings(5) so that children can understand(6) so as not to disturb other guests
129Exe. 3 2) (7) so as not to be recognized (8) In order not to put on weight(9) To avoid any mistake(10) in order that you can make your arrangements(11) for their child to go to college(12) for every student to finish the exam
130Exe. 4 1) that or / 2) Whatever 3) what 4) unless 5) before 6) While 7) as8) As long as9) what10) where11) where12) until13) as if14) so that
131Exe. 5 1) by 2) by, from 3) with, since, in 4) from, without, out of, with/of5) In, In, for, like6) for, with, at, into7) about, as, about8) in, by, Because of, for, for
132Exe. 6 1) The man who came to see Xiao Liu yesterday is his cousin. 2) In those days, the man was happier than he had ever been in his life.3) The farmers didn't stop working until darkness fell. Or; The farmers worked until darkness fell.4) I'm not going to the grocery store today unless you want some milk or something.Or: I'll go to/am going to the grocery store today if you want some milk or something.5) The family are constantly complaining about one another.
133Exe. 66) Is there any place nearby -where/in -which I can get my laptop fixed quickly?7) When questioning the driver who caused the accident, the police was quite sure that the driver wasn't telling the truth.8) Even if I had the money, I wouldn't buy such an expensive thing.9) Seeing is believing.10) It is important for college freshmen to plan their time so that they don't waste it.