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Nahjul Balaaghah about Imamah By A.S. Hashim. MD.

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1 Nahjul Balaaghah about Imamah By A.S. Hashim. MD

2 Nahjul Balaaghah about Imamh Supplication بـســـم الله الرحمن الرحيم In the Name of God, Lord of Mercy and Lord of Grace

3 Nahjul Balaaghah about Imamh Nahjul Balaaghah Nahjul Balaaghah, a highly valued book, consists of: – 254 sermons, – 48 letters, and – 212 sayings of Imam Ali Nahjul Balaaghah is unique to Imam Ali None of the Sahaaba was ever able to produce anything like it: neither in substance nor in literary eloquence. No wonder Ali was referred to as: 1. Sayyid al-Bulaghaa' (Pinnacle of Literary Expression) and 2. Sayyid al-Fu'qahaa, (Pinnacle of the Jurisprudents)

4 Nahjul Balaaghah about Imamh Nahjul Balaaghah about Imamah Nahjul Balaaghah contains 12 references about Imamah. Ten appear in the following slides. The quotes appear in various sermons, –said at variable occasions and –about different subjects. The quotes in Arabic are from the book of Nahjul Balaaghah, by Dr. Subhi Al-Salih, and so is the numbering of the sermons and pages, 1st Edition, Beirut The Number of the sermons may differ by a factor of 1 in other volumes of Nahjul Balaaghah The references are quotes by Abd al-Zahra' al-Husayni in vols. I & IV of his work (see Al-Islam.org, internet)

5 Nahjul Balaaghah about Imamh Time Element The majority of Ali's sayings and speeches were stated: –During his Khilaafah when in Kufa, –At Different Places –At Different Occasions –Often at Khutba of Jumu’ah

6 Nahjul Balaaghah about Imamh In Sermon 34, Ali’s rights versus people’s rights See next slide Other references: 1. Al-Tabari, Ta'rikh, VI, 51; 2. Ibn Qutaybah, al-'Imamah, I, 150; 3. al-Baladhuri, Ansab, 380; 4. al-Mufid, al-Majalis, 79; 5. Nasr ibn Muzahim, see Ibn Abi al-Hadid, I, 179.

7 Nahjul Balaaghah about Imamh In Sermon 34, page 79, Ali about his rights as Imam O' people, I have a right over you and you have a right over me. As for your right over me, it is: a) to counsel you, b) to pay your dues in full, c) to instruct you so you may not remain ignorant and d) coach you in manners of behavior to act upon. As for my right over you, it is: a) Fulfilling the obligation of your allegiance, b) well-wishing in my presence or in absence, c) response when I call upon you, and d) obedience when I order you. أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ! إِنَّ لِي عَلَيْكُمْ حَقّاً، وَلَكُمْ عَلَيَّ حَقٌّ: فَأَمَّا حَقُّكُمْ عَلَيَّ: فَالنَّصِيحَةُ لَكُمْ، وَتَوْفِيرُ فَيْئِكُمْ عَلَيْكُمْ، وَتَعْلِيمُكُمْ كَيْلا تَجْهَلُوا، وَتَأْدِيبُكُمْ كَيْما تَعْلَمُوا. وَأَمَّا حَقِّي عَلَيْكُمْ: فَالوَفَاءُ بِالبَيْعَةِ، وَالنَّصِيحَةُ في الْمَشْهَدِ وَالْمَغِيبِ، وَالاِْجَابَةُ حِينَ أَدْعُوكُمْ، وَالطَّاعَةُ حِينَ آمُرُكُمْ.

8 Nahjul Balaaghah about Imamh In Sermon 105, Ali about functions of the Imam See next slide –Other references: 1. Al-Mufid, al-'Irshad, 160; 2. Ali ibn Ibrahim al-Qummi, Tafsir, I, 384.

9 Nahjul Balaaghah about Imamh In Sermon 105, page 152, Ali about functions of the Imam Certainly, there is no obligation on the Imam except what has been devolved on him from Allah: a) to convey good council, b) to exert in good advice, c) to revive the Sunnah, d) to enforce penalties on those liable to them and e) to issue shares to the deserving. So hasten towards knowledge before: a) it dries up, and b) before you busy yourselves away from the ones who have it. Desist others from the reprehensible and abstain from it yourself, since you have been commanded to abstain from it before desisting others from it. إِنَّهُ لَيسَ عَلَى الاِْمَامِ إِلاَّ مَا حُمِّلَ مِنْ أَمْرِ رَبِّهِ: الاِْبْلاَغُ فَي الْمَوْعِظَةِ، وَالاجْتِهَادُ فِي النَّصِيحَةِ، وَالاِْحْيَاءُ لِلسُّنَّةِ، وَإِقَامَةُ الْحُدُودِ عَلَى مُسْتَحِقِّيهَا، وَإِصْدَارُ السُّهْمَانِ عَلَى أَهْلِهَا. فَبَادِرُوا الْعِلْمَ مِنْ قَبْلِ تَصْوِيحِ نَبْتِهِ، وَمِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ تُشْغَلُوا بَأَنْفُسِكُمْ عَنْ مُسْتَثَارِ الْعِلْمِ مِنْ عِنْدِ أَهْلِهِ، وَانْهَوْا عَنْ المُنْكَرِ وَتَنَاهَوْا عَنْهُ، فَإِنَّمَا أُمِرْتُمْ بالنَّهْي بَعْدَ التَّنَاهِي!

10 Nahjul Balaaghah about Imamh In Sermon 131, Ali about qualities of Imams See next slide Other references: 1. Sibt, Tadhkirah, 120; 2. al-Qadi al-Nu`man, Da`a'im, 531; 3. Ibn al-'Athir, al-Nihayah, III,154 (z.'a.r), V, 270 (w.`a.a).

11 Nahjul Balaaghah about Imamh In Sermon 131, page 189, Ali about qualities of Imams You certainly know that he who is in charge of honor, life, booty, enforcement of legal commandments and Imamah of the Muslims should not be: a) a miser as his greed would aim at people’s wealth, nor be b) ignorant as he would then mislead them with his ignorance, nor be of c) rude behavior who would estrange them with his rudeness, nor should he d) deal unjustly with wealth thus preferring one group over another, nor should he e) accept a bribe while taking decisions, as he would forfeit others’ rights and hold them up without finality, nor should he f) ignore Sunnah as he would ruin the people. وقَدْ عَلِمْتُمْ أَنَّهُ لاَ يَنْبَغِي أَنْ يَكُونَ عَلَى الْفُرُوجِ وَالدِّمَاءِ وَالمَغَانِمِ وَالاَحْكَامِ وَإِمَامَةِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ الْبَخِيلُ، فَتَكُونَ فِي أَمْوَالِهِمْ نَهْمَتُهُ، وَلاَ الْجَاهِلُ فَيُضِلَّهُمْ بِجَهْلِهِ، وَلاَ الْجَافِي فَيَقْطَعَهُمْ بِجَفَائِهِ، وَلاَ الجَائِفُ لِلدُّوَلِ فَيَتَّخِذَ قَوْماً دُونَ قَوْم، وَلاَ الْمُرْتَشِي فِي الْحُكْمِ فَيَذْهَبَ بِالْحُقُوقِ وَيَقِفَ بِهَا دُونَ المَقَاطِعِ، وَلاَ الْمَعطِّلُ لِلسُّنَّةِ فَيُهْلِكَ الاُمَّةَ.

12 Nahjul Balaaghah about Imamh In Sermon 144, Ali: Imams from Hashim Clan See next slide –Other references: 1. Al-'Amidi, Ghurar, see `Abd al-Zahra', II, 322.

13 Nahjul Balaaghah about Imamh In Sermon 144, page 201, Ali: Imams from Hashim Clan Where are those who falsely claim to be versed in knowledge, as compared to us. In so saying it is a lie and an affront. Lo! While Allah has raised us in prominence, He made them inferior. And while Allah has privileged us with His bounty, He deprived them of that bounty. And while Allah welcomed us in the fortress of knowledge, yet He kept them out of it. Lo! By us, Ahlul Bayt, guidance is to be sought out; and through us ignorance is exchanged for Light. Surely the Imams are from Quraish. The Imamah has been planted in this lineage through the clan of Hashim. Thus, Imamah does not suit others nor would others be suitable for it. أَيْنَ الَّذِينَ زَعَمُوا أَنَّهُمُ الرَّاسِخُونَ فِي الْعِلْمِ دُونَنَا، كَذِباً وَبَغْياً عَلَيْنَا، أَنْ رَفَعَنَا اللهُ وَوَضَعَهُمْ، وَأَعْطَانَا وَحَرَمَهُمْ، وَأَدْخَلَنَا وَأَخْرَجَهُمْ. بِنَا يُسْتَعْطَى الْهُدَى، وَبِنَا يُسْتَجْلَى الْعَمَى. إِنَّ الاَْئِمَّةَ مِنْ قُرَيش غُرِسُوا فِي هذَا الْبَطْنِ مِنْ هَاشِم، لاَ تَصْلُحُ عَلَى سِوَاهُمْ، وَلاَ تَصْلُحُ الْوُلاَةُ مِنْ غَيْرِهمْ.

14 Nahjul Balaaghah about Imamh In Sermon 152, Ali about authority of Imams See next slide –Other references: 1. Al-Kulayni, Usul al-Kafi, I, 139; 2. al-'Amidi, Ghurar, 232, 235.

15 Nahjul Balaaghah about Imamh In Sermon 152, page 212, Ali about authority of Imams Certainly the Imams are the sovereign of Allah over His creatures, who enlighten and inform about Him. By virtue of this knowledge, no one will enter the Heavenly Bliss except he who comprehends their teachings about Allah, And no one will enter Hellfire except he who denies their teachings about Him. Allah has distinguished you, O People! with Islam and has chosen you for it. Islam indicates safety to mankind, and honors the deserving. Allah has chosen Islam’s way and disclosed its pleas through open knowledge and undisclosed maxims….. وَإِنَّمَا الاَئِمَّةُ قُوَّامُ اللهِ عَلَى خَلْقِهِ، وَعُرَفَاؤُهُ عَلَى عِبَادِهِ، لاَ يَدْخُلُ الْجَنَّةَ إِلاَّ مَنْ عَرَفَهُمْ وَعَرَفُوهُ، وَلاَ يَدْخُلُ النَّارَ إِلاَّ منْ أَنْكَرَهُمْ وَأَنْكَرُوهُ. إِنَّ اللهَ خَصَّكُمْ بَالاِْسْلاَمِ، وَاسْتَخْلَصَكُمْ لَهُ، وَذلِكَ لاَِنَّهُ اسْمُ سَلاَمَة، وَجِمَاعُ كَرَامَة، اصْطَفَى اللهُ تَعَالَى مَنْهَجَهُ، وَبَيَّنَ حُجَجَهُ، مِنْ ظَاهِرِ عِلْم، وَبَاطِنِ حِكَم، لاَ تَفْنَى غَرَائِبُهُ، وَلاَ تَنْقَضِي عَجَائِبُهُ، فِيهِ مَرَابِيعُ النِّعَمِ، وَمَصَابِيحُ الظُّلَمِ، لاَ تُفْتَحُ الْخَيْرَاتُ إِلاَّ بِمَفَاتِحِهِ، وَلاَ تُكْشَفُ الظُّلُمَاتُ إِلاَّ بِمَصَابِحِهِ

16 Nahjul Balaaghah about Imamh In Sermon 162, Ali about Khilaafah One of Amir al-Mu'minin’s companions from Benu Asad asked him: “How was it that your clan of Quraish deprived you of the Khilaafah even though you deserved it most.” Ali’s answer (see next slide) Other references: 1. Al-Saduq, al-'Amali, 368; 2. al-Saduq, `Ilal, bab 119; 3. al-Mufid, al-'Irshad, 172; 4. al-Tabari, al-Mustarshid, 64.

17 Nahjul Balaaghah about Imamh In Sermon 162, page 231, Ali about Khilaafah As regards the repression against us in this matter (Khilaafah), although we were the highest in regards to descent and the strongest in relationship with the Messenger of Allah: It was – a greed of the hearts of some people, – versus the openhandedness of others The Arbiter is Allah and to Him is the return on the Day of Judgment. أمَّا الاسْتِبْدادُ عَلَيْنَا بِهذَا الْمَقامِ وَنَحْنُ الاَْعْلَوْنَ نَسَباً، وَالاشَدُّونَ بِالرَّسُولِ نَوْطاً، فَإنَّهَا كَانَتْ أَثَرَةً شَحَّتْ عَلَيْهَا نُفُوسُ قَوْم، وَسَخَتْ عَنْهَا نُفوسُ آخَرِينَ، وَالْحَكَمُ اللهُ، وَالْمَعْوَدُ إلَيْهِ الْقِيَامَةُ.

18 Nahjul Balaaghah about Imamh In Sermon 164, Ali about Unjust Imam When a deputation of people complained to Ali against Uthman, and requested him to speak to Uthman on their behalf and to advise him for their sake, For part of Ali’s advice to Uthman see next slide please Other references: 1. Al-Baladhuri, Ansab, V, 60; 2. al-Tabari, Ta'rikh, V, 96, events of 34 H.; 3. Ibn `Abd Rabbih, al-`Iqd, IV, 308, II, 273; 4. al-Mufid, al-Jamal, 100; 5. Ibn Miskawayh, Tajarib al-'umam (1909), I, 478.

19 Nahjul Balaaghah about Imamh In Sermon 164, page 235, Ali about Unjust Imam For sure, the worst man before Allah is the repressive Imam who has gone astray and led others to go astray. He destroys the accepted Sunnah and revives abandoned innovations. I heard the Messenger of Allah saying: "On the Day of Judgment the oppressive Imam will be brought with no one to support him nor any to advance excuses for him, and then he will be thrown into Hell where he will rotate as the hand-mill rotates, eventually he will be confined to its hollow." وَإِنَّ شَرَّ النَّاسِ عِنْدَاللهِ إِمَامٌ جَائِرٌ ضَلَّ وَضُلَّ بِهِ، فَأَمَاتَ سُنَّةً مَأْخُوذَةً، وَأَحْيَا بِدْعَةً مَتْرُوكَةً. وَإِني سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللهِ (صلى الله عليه وآله) يَقُولُ: «يُؤْتَى يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ بِالاِْمَامِ الْجَائِرِ وَلَيْسَ مَعَهُ نَصِيرٌ وَلاَ عَاذِرٌ، فَيُلْقَى فِي نَارِ جَهَنَّمَ، فَيَدُورُ فِيهَا كَمَا تَدُورُ الرَّحَى، ثُمَّ يَرْتَبِطُ فِي قَعْرِهَا».

20 Nahjul Balaaghah about Imamh In Sermon 168 Ali: about killers of Uthman After swearing allegiance to Ali, some companions of the Prophet said to him, “You should punish the people who assaulted Uthman,” See Ali’s answer in next slide Other references: 1. Al-Tabari, Ta'rikh, V, 158, events of 35 H.; 2. Ibn Miskawayh, Tajarib, I, 510.

21 Nahjul Balaaghah about Imamh In Sermon 168 page 243, Ali: about killers of Uthman When the matter is taken up, people will have different views. One group will think as you do, but another will not think as you think, and there will still be another group which will be neither this way nor that way. Be patient till people quiet down and hearts settle in their places so that rights for people can well be achieved. And rest assured, and see what I’ll come forth in this regard. Do nothing to shatter your power or weaken your strength, that it may engender frailty and humiliation. إنَّ النَّاسَ مِنْ هذَا الاَْمْرِ ـ إذَا حُرِّكَ ـ عَلَى أُمُور: فِرْقَةٌ تَرَى مَا تَرَوْنَ، وَفِرقْةٌ تَرَى مَا لاَ تَرَوْنَ، وَفِرْقَةٌ لاَ تَرَى لا هذَا وَلاَ هذَا، فَاصْبِرُوا حَتَّى يَهْدَأَ النَّاسُ، وَتَقَعَ الْقُلُوبُ مَوَاقِعَهَا، وَتُؤْخَذَ الْحُقُوقُ مُسْمَحَةً; فَاهْدَأُوا عَنِّي، وَانْظُرُوا مَاذَا يَأْتِيكُمْ بِهِ أَمْرِي، وَلاَ تَفْعَلُوا فَعْلَةً تُضَعْضِعُ قُوَّةً، وَتُسْقِطُ مُنَّةً، وَتُورِثُ وَهْناً وَذِلَّةً.

22 Nahjul Balaaghah about Imamh In letter 27, Ali: the good versus the bad Ruler When Imam Ali appointed Muhammad bin Abu Bakr as the Governor of Egypt, he gave him instructions in a long letter. Part of the letter, regarding the good versus the bad ruler, appears in next slide: See next slide:

23 Nahjul Balaaghah about Imamh In letter 27, page 385, Ali: the good versus the bad Ruler For certainly, they are not on a par, a leader who leads to guidance versus one who leads to wickedness. Nor are devotees of the Prophet on a par with his opponents. Verily the Prophet said to me “I have no worries for my Ummah, since Allah would safeguard the devout Muslim by his own faith, and unravel the evil works of the heathen through his disbelief. But, I (the Prophet) feel worried about the works of the swindlers among Muslims, who appear outwardly as wise and smooth talkers, speaking as you speak, but secretly indulging in vices and malice. فَإِنَّهُ لاَ سَوَاءَ، إِمَامُ الْهُدَى وَإِمَامُ الرَّدَى، وَوَلِيُّ النَّبِىِّ وَعَدُوُّ النَّبِيِّ، وَلَقَدْ قَالَ لِي رَسُولُ اللهِ (صلى الله عليه وآله): "إِنِّي لاَ أَخَافُ عَلَى أُمَّتِي مُؤْمِناً وَلاَ مُشْرِكاً، أَمَّا الْمُؤمِنُ فَيَمْنَعُهُ اللهُ بِإِيمَانِهِ، وَأَمَّا الْمُشْرِكُ فَيَقْمَعُهُ اللهُ بِشِرْكِهِ، لكِنِّي أَخَافُ عَلَيْكُمْ كُلَّ مَنَافِقِ الْجَنَانِ، عَالِمِ اللِّسَانِ، يَقُولُ مَا تَعْرِفُونَ، وَيَفْعَلُ مَا تُنْكِرُونَ".

24 Nahjul Balaaghah about Imamh In Sermon 182, Ali admonishing It has been related by Nawf al-Bikali that when Ali delivered this sermon he had a woolen apparel on his body, the belt of his sword and the sandals on his feet were made of palm leaves, his forehead calloused due to long prostrations. See next slide Other references: 1. Al-Wasiti, `Uyun al-hikam, see al-Majlisi, vol. 77, 310; 2. Ibn al-'Athir, al-Nihayah, II, 145, 198.

25 Nahjul Balaaghah about Imamh In Sermon 182, page 263, Ali admonishing O' people! I have divulged guidance as the prophets used to preach before their peoples, and I have conveyed to you what the disciples conveyed to those coming after them. I tried to coach you firmly but you could not straighten up. I admonished you sternly but you did not react well. May Allah deal with you! Do you want an Imam other than me to take you on the right path, and show you the correct way? Beware, he who was on the ascendancy has become thing of the past, and he who was in decline is on the rise. The virtuous people of Allah have decided to leave, having traded the transient pleasure of this world to the rewards of the heavenly world that will perish not. أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ، إِنِّي قَدْ بَثَثْتُ لَكُمُ الْمَوَاعِظَ الَّتِي وَعَظَ بِهَا الاَْنْبِيَاءُ أُمَمَهُمْ، وَأَدَّيْتُ إِلَيْكُمْ مَا أَدَّتِ الاَْوصِيَاءُ إِلَى مَنْ بَعْدَهُمْ، وَأَدَّبْتُكُمْ بِسَوْطِي فَلَمْ تَسْتَقِيمُوا، وَحَدَوْتُكُمْ بالزَّوَاجِرِ فَلَمْ تَسْتَوْسِقُوا. لله أَنْتُمْ! أَتَتَوَقَّعُونَ إِمَاماً غَيْرِي يَطَأُ بِكُمُ الطَّرِيقَ، وَيُرْشِدُكُمُ السَّبِيلَ؟ أَلاَ إِنَّهُ قَدْ أَدْبَرَ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا مَا كَانَ مُقْبِلاً، وَأَقْبَلَ مِنْهَا مَا كَانَ مُدْبِراً، وَأَزْمَعَ التَّرْحَالَ عِبَادُاللهِ الاَْخْيَارُ، وَبَاعُوا قَلِيلاً مِنَ الدُّنْيَا لاَ يَبْقَى، بِكَثِير مِنَ الاْخِرَةِ لاَيَفْنَى.

26 Nahjul Balaaghah about Imamh Be in Allah’s Care Thank you and May God Bless you. Dr. A.S. Hashim


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