Presentation on theme: "PARTICIPATORY TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT OF ACdN IN SOUTHERN MALI Improving NRM innovation for Sustainable agriculture."— Presentation transcript:
PARTICIPATORY TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT OF ACdN IN SOUTHERN MALI Improving NRM innovation for Sustainable agriculture
Outline INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION CONTEXT OF PTDCONTEXT OF PTD ACdN PTD APPROACHACdN PTD APPROACH OUTCOMES OF THE APPROACHOUTCOMES OF THE APPROACH WEAKNESSES OF THE APPROACHWEAKNESSES OF THE APPROACH IMPROVING NRM INNOVATION FOR AGRICULTURAL SUSTAINABILITYIMPROVING NRM INNOVATION FOR AGRICULTURAL SUSTAINABILITY
INTRODUCTION Increased production of cottonIncreased production of cotton 220 996 tons in 1991 459 792 tons in 2000 Cotton yieldsCotton yields 19911227 kg/ha 2000 1000 kg/ha Cotton area:Cotton area: 1990/91205 311 ha 1999/00482 293 ha Sustainability of cotton-based systems??
INTRODUCTION (Continued) State of resource use Administrative units Low Bougouni, Kolondieba, Yanfolila Sustainable Segou, Baraoueli, Kadiolo High Sikasso, Bla, Yorosso Excess Dioila, Koutiala, San, Tominian
Introduction (continued) Soil degradationSoil degradation Acidification Acidification Erosion ( ancient cotton belt) Many SWC technologies are available (stone lines, mulch, living fences, improved fallows, ridge tillage..) But low level of adoption (LAE <50%, 40% type A, 10% type B).
CONTEXT OF PTD IN MALI-SUD Before 1980 (Diffusion model)Before 1980 (Diffusion model) Researchers (IER) Extension (CMDT) Village-based farmer associations
CONTEXT OF PTD IN MALI-SUD (Continued) After 1980 (FSR&Extension model)After 1980 (FSR&Extension model)Researchers(IER) Extension Farmers (CMDT)(Communities)
CONTEXT OF PTD IN MALI-SUD (Continued) 1978: Natural resource management problems (Fonsebougou) Soil erosion/Overgrazing/Logging/Bushfire Land clearing 1982: Development of a soil conservation model with 4 farmers at katio watershed (Fonsebougou)
CONTEXT OF PTD IN MALI-SUD (Continued) 1984: Water conservation experiment in Kaniko Village based approach (AV) 1985:WCE at Try I and Try II 1986: SWC extension project in CMDT Choice of villages (few villages, use of local resources) Training extension staff Sensitizing, animation and training of communities
CONTEXT OF PTD IN MALI-SUD (Continued) SWC have concerned a limited number of farmers Farmers were aware of the threats soil erosion and degradation to their livelihoods They lack means and motivation for making SWC a priority because they don’t get short term benefits from the adoption of these technologies There is a need to introduce incentives to increase benefits for farmers
CONTEXT OF PTD IN MALI-SUD (Continued) Research should monitor and analyze extension activities, propose changes according rainfall, soil, ethnic, farming system characteristic…, find solutions to technical problems face by extension Test of practical approach of “gestion des terroirs”
ACdN TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT APPROACH ACdN technology as a SW management technology with short term benefits A Commodity technology development (LABOSEP-CIRAD)A Commodity technology development (LABOSEP-CIRAD) A Farming system and extension approach (FSR&NRM )A Farming system and extension approach (FSR&NRM ) NGOs approach (AMEDD)NGOs approach (AMEDD)
A Commodity technology development (LABOSEP-CIRAD) Researcher managed trials (1994-2001) have shown that positive impacts on soil physical properties of ACdN are:Researcher managed trials (1994-2001) have shown that positive impacts on soil physical properties of ACdN are: - Reduced run-off at plot level by 20 to 40% - Deeper wetting front from 1.2 to 20m - Increase soil water content (10 t0 30% vol). ACdN technology alone increased also the yield of crops by 30% and in combination with mineral fertilizers the yield increase was 50%.ACdN technology alone increased also the yield of crops by 30% and in combination with mineral fertilizers the yield increase was 50%.
Crop Monetary Income of ACdN adoption at farmer level
A farming system and Extension approach (FSR&NRM- INTERCRSP) FSE&NRM (CMDT)FSE&NRM (CMDT) Training of village-based farmer association in ACdN implementation Training of village-based farmer association in ACdN implementation FSR&NRM (OHVN)FSR&NRM (OHVN) Farmers to farmers’ visits (InterCRSP-NRM) Farmers’ managed trials based on rural household resource endowments (A, B, C and D)
Yields of sorghum and maize under farmers’ managed trials
ACdN TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT APPROACH Advantages Category of farmers ABC and D Preserving manure and mineral fertilizers +++++++ Preventing soil erosion++++++++ Reducing losses from heavy storms++++ Improved water availability for crops++++++++++++
A Commodity technology development approach Konobougou (LABOSEP-CIRAD)Konobougou (LABOSEP-CIRAD) Diagnosis by technical team 5000 FCFA/ha Oumarbougou (AMED) Same approach 3000 FCFA/ha (subvention) Phase I 5000 FCFA/ha Phase II : Farmers won’t accept? Increasing demand for ACdN but not satisfied?
OUTCOMES OF THE APPROACH AWARENESS OF ACTORSAWARENESS OF ACTORS ACTORS ARE ENGAGED IN A SOCIAL LEARNING PROCESSACTORS ARE ENGAGED IN A SOCIAL LEARNING PROCESS FARMERS ARE WILLING TO INVESTFARMERS ARE WILLING TO INVEST
WEAKNESSES OF THE ACdN TECHOLOGY APPROACH Lack of active farmer participationLack of active farmer participation No two-way sharing of information among farmers, researchers and extensionNo two-way sharing of information among farmers, researchers and extension No capacity building for socializing lessons learnedNo capacity building for socializing lessons learned Overcoming socio-economical aspectsOvercoming socio-economical aspects No collective decision making and concerted actionNo collective decision making and concerted action
IMPROVING NRM INNOVATION FOR AGRICULTURAL SUSTAINABILITY New context Moving from a technical phase, economical phase to policy phase (Land use – a contested activity with multiple stakeholders) An interactive perspective for technological innovation requires: Building platforms for dialogue and interactions among actors,
IMPROVING NRM INNOVATION FOR AGRICULTURAL SUSTAINABILITY (Continued) Enhanced innovative performance (facilitating the interactive process, A framework for evaluating the process Empowerment of farmers to exert countervailing power in the policy games Farmers’ to farmers visits, farmers’ field schools and tools as real alternatives to conventional thinking about diffusion and transfer of technology
IMPROVING NRM INNOVATION FOR AGRICULTURAL SUSTAINABILITY (Continued) Crucial outcomes from interaction are: Reciprocity and trust, Negotiated agreement, Conflict management, Social learning Overcoming social dilemmas, Collective decision making and Concerted action.
Conceptual View of Technology Development and Transfer/Diffusion Developer Goals Transfer Process Technological Activity User wants and Needs Research & Resource Feedback Barriers loop Feedback loop Diffusion of (Users) the innovation