4Concentric modelIt was put forward by Ernest W. Burgess (sociologist) and his associates in 1920s.It was based on empirical research in a number of American cities, like Chicago.Main ideas of the model:Ecological approach to explain land use patternResidential segregation + Social segregationSpatial pattern of various land use zones
5ECOLOGICAL Concepts of the model Burgess adopted the concepts used by plant ecologists (ideas of competition, dominance, invasion and succession)within the city, people competes for limited space (COMPETITION)those who are best able to pay (DOMINANCE) achieve the most desirable locations (INVASION and SUCCESSION).those individuals and functions with the lowest level of economic competence have the least choice, occupying the poorest locations.
6How did Burgess explain land uses in Chicago? The CBD, the most accessible location attracted all sorts of commercial activitiesShortage of land induced keen competitionThe location was dominated by those activities with high rental capacity
7How did Burgess explain land uses in Chicago? This is caused by growth of city economy & arrival of new migrants to the city.As the city grew, the CBD would exert pressure on the zone immediately surrounding it i.e. the zone of transitionOutward expansion of the CBD would invade nearby residential areas causing them to expand outwards.
8How did Burgess explain land uses in Chicago? The process was thought to continue with each successive neighbourhood moving further from the CBD.New immigrants would move into the cheapest residential areas of the city. When they became economically established, they would migrate outwards.Thus lower residential class moved to adjacent neighbourhoods and more affluent residents moved further outwards.
9Bid-rent mechanism APPLIES land value decreases with increasing distance.the highest land value is at the city centre because of keenest competition.
10functional zoning and residential segregation = within different areas of the city, different single functions formed the dominant element.
11Concentric Model C.B.D. Transition Zone Low class residential Commuter’s zoneTransition ZoneMiddle class residentialLow class residential
18Chicago’s inner city “slums” 1920s Chicago’s Gold Coast 1930s
19Zone in transition Surrounds the CBD an area of ‘blight’, also called the twilight zone.An area of mixed land uses – wholesale, light manufacturing, residentialProvides cheap housing for each new immigrant wavethe zone often characterized by slums, immigrant ghettoes, unstable and low social groups and crime.poorest residential areas.
22Zone of workingmen’s homes surrounds the transition zonehas some of the older, often terraced housing areas of the cityoccupied by workers who have left the transition zone but who still require ready access to their places of work in the inner zone. They left transition zone because they want better living conditions.2nd generation immigrants form an important element of the pop. in this zone.
26Commuter Zonelies beyond the continuous built-up area of the town, at the fringe of the urban area.consists of discontinuous urban settlement interspersed with recreational facilities, woodland, pastures.is the zone of high class residential properties where people can afford the high costs of commuting.
30DiscussionCan you apply the ecological concepts suggested by Burgess to explain the land use changes in Hong Kong?
31Socio-economic characteristics Social statuswealthIncomeEducation leveloccupationEthnicsPeople of different racesMajorities vs minoritiesFamily structureFamily sizeFamily compositionAgeSex
32Socio-economic status Near city centreTowards the peripheryPeople of lower socio-economic status usually have lower income due to lower skills and poorer education so they occupy some less favourable sites, e.g. the slums in the inner city or squatter areas at the edge of the inner cityPeople of higher socio-economic status usually have higher income (more affluent) due to more professional occupation and their higher educational background. as they look for better living environment and higher quality of life.Conclusion: Positive correlation between socio-economic status of households with distance from the CBD.
33Ethnic groups in a cityEthnic groups are new immigrants from other foreign countries, e.g. the Chinese, the Italians, the Japanese in some US citiesEthnic groups tend to cluster toegther as:They can cooperate, unite together or defend themselves when encounter any problems in the neighbourhoodThey can feel less isolated from the city in order to integrate themselves into the communityThey usually have lower social status / bargaining power to compete for a favourable site occupy the inner city areasExamples: China town (Leicester Square) in London, Little Sicily in Chicago
34Far away from city centre (Peripheral areas) Family structureNear city centreFar away from city centre (Peripheral areas)Family sizeSmall families occupy less space as they can afford the small flats near city centreBig families as they need more space for children so they look for larger space of lower land rentFamily average ageOld people usually have lower mobilityYoung family have higher mobilityFamily structureYoung professional (yuppies) lives close to city centre to look for entertainment, e.g. rise of Soho District
35Early stage of urbanization People tended to reside near the CBD to minimize the distance travelled so as the transport cost
36suburbanizationAs real incomes have risen and better transportation has increased mobility, this allows the separation of home and workplaces.Wealthy people moved out of the inner city which was later Invaded by poorer ethnic minorities due to rising immigrants to the city.To offset high land value in these near- city locations, they use only small amount of land by living in high density apartments which make maximum use of expensive land.Occupied by wealthier people who could afford the higher transport cost when moving out of the city centre.Wealthy people can occupy larger amount of cheaper residential land on the periphery where they live in detached dwellings and pay the high commuting costs to city centre.
37Results of suburbanization social segregation = creating particular groups or classes which segregate themselves from other groups.poor people living close to the city centre on high value land, while more wealthy people live on the periphery where land is generally cheaper.As reflected by the quality of housingdifferent in life styles + quality of life, income and social status
38Weaknesses of burgess model Concentric zones are not homogenous but heterogeneoustherefore, they are not distinctive and inevitably distorted by major transport axes and topography features.
39CriticismsLimited universality: it is limited “to a particular situation, at a particular time in a particular country” (Carter, 1976)The setting of the model was based on a particular historical & cultural context.It is most relevant to American cities in the 1920s but is less relevant to other times and other cities especially in ELDCs.
40Criticismsit has allowed many centres of employment to grow outside the CBD due to increased mobilitylarge plots of land are only available in the urban fringe, thus lower class residential areas are found in the outer zone due to inefficient transport.It enables low class residents to move away from their place of work.The decline of the CBD and the emergence of suburban business centresIncreasing level of public interventionTransport innovation
41CriticismsUse for understanding residential pattern better than commercial and industrial land uses
42ContributionsIt was the first attempt to analyse the internal morphology of townBurgess model has invaluable contribution for residential land use of a city. It suggests a process of urban growth that might give rise to these.It provides a good conceptual framework for more detailed study of the complex urban land use.