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GOOD PRACTICES in TEACHING S.A.M. Said King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum & Minerals October 2008

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Outline Introduction BLOOM'S TAXONOMY Factors Influence Students’ Learning Students Approaches to Learning Good Teaching / Features of Effective Teaching Concluding Remarks

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Introduction “ One of the greatest sins in teaching is to be boring” (Baughman, 1979, p. 28). “ I'm sure every one of us can name a teacher that's made a difference in our lives. They were the ones that seemed to understand us the best-or who challenged us the most ”(Stanford, 2000). “I never teach my pupils; I only attempt to provide the conditions in which they can learn” - Albert Einstein

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Students Learning Having a knowledge of basic learning principles is important. Bloom found that over 95 % of the test questions students encounter require students to think only at the lowest possible level...the recall of information. Bloom identified six levels within the cognitive domain.

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BLOOM'S TAXONOMY Knowledge: arrange, define, duplicate, label, list, memorize, name, order, recognize, relate, recall, repeat, reproduce state. Comprehension: classify, describe, discuss, explain, express, identify, indicate, locate, recognize, report, restate, review, select, translate,. Application: apply, choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret, operate, practice, schedule, sketch, solve, use, write.

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BLOOM'S TAXONOMY Analysis: analyze, appraise, calculate, categorize, compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine, experiment, question, test. Synthesis: arrange, assemble, collect, compose, construct, create, design, develop, formulate, manage, organize, plan, prepare, propose, set up, write. Evaluation: appraise, argue, assess, attach, choose compare, defend estimate, judge, predict, rate, core, select, support, value, evaluate.

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Factors Influence Students’ Learning 1.The North American Approach: The seven principles of good practice in undergraduate education. 2. The UK & Australian Approach: Examines how students approach learning and how teachers approach teaching

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Principle 1 Encourages Student-Faculty Contact Make it a point to talk with your students on a personal level. Learn about their educational and career plans.

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Principle 2 Encourages Cooperation Among Students Team effort than a solo race. Good learning, like good work is collaborative and social, not competitive and isolated. Working with others often increases involvement in learning. Sharing one’s ideas and responding to others’ reactions improves thinking and deepens understanding. Beginning with the first class have students participate in activities that encourage them to get to know each other.

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Principle 3 Encourages Active Learning Students do not learn much just sitting in classes listening to teachers and memorizing pre-packaged assignments. They must talk about what they are learning, write about it, relate it to past experiences and apply it to their daily lives. They must make what they learn a part of themselves. Ask your students to present their work in class

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Principle 4 Gives Prompt Feedback Knowing what you know and don’t know focuses learning. In getting started, students need help in assessing existing knowledge and competence. In classes students need frequent opportunity to perform and get suggestions for improvement. They need a chance to reflect on what they have learned, what they still need to know and how to assess themselves. Return assignments and tests within a week.

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Principle 5 Emphasizes Time on Task Time plus energy equals learning. There is no substitute for time on task. Learning to use time well is critical for students and professionals. Students need help in learning effective time management. Allocating realistic amounts of time means effective learning for students and effective teaching for faculty. Expect your students to complete assignments promptly

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Principle 6 Communicates High Expectations Expect more and you will get it. High expectations are important for everyone – for the poorly prepared, for those unwilling to exert themselves, and for the bright and motivated. Expecting students to perform well becomes a self-fulfilling prophesy when teachers and institutions hold high expectations of themselves and make extra efforts. Encourage students to excel at the work they do

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Principle 7 Respects Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning There are many roads to learning. People come with different talents and styles of learning. Brilliant students in the classroom may be not be good in the lab. Students rich in hands-on experience may not do so well in theory. Students need opportunity to show their talents in ways that work for them. Encourage students to speak up when they do not understand

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The UK & Australian Approach This approach examines : How students approach learning and How teachers approach teaching

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Students Approaches to Learning Surface Approach – intend to reproduce material Deep Approach – intend to understand, integrate material BUT – most students are capable of either – it seems to depend a lot on: Perceived assessment demands Perceived features of the learning environment

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Teachers Approaches to Teaching Teacher-focused approach – focus is on transmission Student-centred approach – focus is on students developing their own understanding of concepts

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Interaction of both Approaches Students taught with a teacher-focused approach are more likely to take a surface approach to learning. Students taught with a more student-centred approach tend to take a more deep approach to learning. A teacher focussed approach is practiced more

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Student-Centred Approach Involves more student-faculty contact Involves use of active learning strategies Involves appropriate assessment methods Involves clear expectations Involves regular formative feedback Involves more reasonable workload Involves more independence and choice by the students Involves a focus on students developing their own understanding of concepts It is the teacher’s intentions and conception of learning that is critical in the concept of student- centred teaching

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Teaching that Enhances Learning The most efficient ways in Learning are: Motivate the students Stimulate their curiosity Project-oriented learning Problem based learning Student-centered learning … and the learning will follow by itself.

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Features of Effective Teaching Effective Teaching is: - Evidence-Based - Conceptually underpinned - Focus on student learning outcomes, especially: * Thinking skills and “deep” learning * Lifelong learning (“learning to learn”)

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Factors that detract from “deep” learning Heavy workloads - reasonable workloads is a key, even if it means reducing content “coverage” Exclusive use of lecturing - cut down on lecture time and extend individual study time and time for designated projects Assessment methods used

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Teaching in Higher Education is shifting the emphasis away from what is taught to what students learn, understand, or discover. Teachers who think at higher levels produce students who are higher achieving. Brilliant teaching reflects scholarship, personal integrity and the ability to communicate with the students. Concluding Remarks

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The Seven Principles of Good Practice based on research on good teaching and learning in colleges and universities do enhance learning if implemented. Effective teaching must result in “deep” learning and lifelong learning. Fostering an environment of continuous academic development is a must for enhancing student learning. Concluding Remarks

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Thank you

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