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COMPARING AND CONTRASTING POPULAR FORMATS for EXERCISE PROGRAMMING John Doe, MA Parts 1 & 2.

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Presentation on theme: "COMPARING AND CONTRASTING POPULAR FORMATS for EXERCISE PROGRAMMING John Doe, MA Parts 1 & 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 COMPARING AND CONTRASTING POPULAR FORMATS for EXERCISE PROGRAMMING John Doe, MA Parts 1 & 2

2 1 A Brief Word about the Research Clarifying Terms and Definitions Energy Systems/Muscle Fiber Types Popular Programs Defined Break Client Interview/Training Program Preparation Matching Goals: Needs vs. Wants Discussion of Research Agenda

3 2 A Brief Word about the Research Per-Olof Astrand & Kaare Rodahl Per-Olof Astrand & Kaare Rodahl Mathews & Fox Mathews & Fox Costill & Wilmore Costill & Wilmore Jackson & Pollack Jackson & Pollack Hakkinen & Parkarinen Hakkinen & Parkarinen Flack & Kraemer Flack & Kraemer Tag-TeamsThe Soloist De Vries De Vries Darden Darden Nieman Nieman Stone Stone Westcott Westcott Peter Orsini Peter Orsini

4 3 The ability for the acid/alkaline system of your body to buffer and recycle hydrogen byproducts from muscular activity The ability for the acid/alkaline system of your body to buffer and recycle hydrogen byproducts from muscular activity High-intensity cardiovascular activity that borders on strength output over time High-intensity cardiovascular activity that borders on strength output over time Clarifying Terms and Definitions Strength Usually defined as one repetition max (1-RM). However, we usually define it as the amount of resistance a client can overcome performing a single set of activity correctly Usually defined as one repetition max (1-RM). However, we usually define it as the amount of resistance a client can overcome performing a single set of activity correctly Combining strength with speed. Usually quick, explosive, high-intensity activity Combining strength with speed. Usually quick, explosive, high-intensity activity Neuro- muscular endurance The capacity of a muscle to exert force repeatedly against a resistance, or to hold a fixed or static contraction over time The capacity of a muscle to exert force repeatedly against a resistance, or to hold a fixed or static contraction over time Stamina Vascular shunting The trafficking of blood through various areas of the body at the expense of decreased circulation in other areas The trafficking of blood through various areas of the body at the expense of decreased circulation in other areas Lactic acid buffering Power

5 4 The (theoretical) increase in the number of muscle fibers in the muscle The (theoretical) increase in the number of muscle fibers in the muscle Those interested in weight-loss or weight-gain. Specifically clients who want to increase lean mass and decrease fat mass Those interested in weight-loss or weight-gain. Specifically clients who want to increase lean mass and decrease fat mass Clarifying Terms and Definitions Hypertrophy An increase in the cross-sectional size of a muscle in response to progressive resistance strength training An increase in the cross-sectional size of a muscle in response to progressive resistance strength training Hyperplasia Physique athlete Body-builders, models, anyone else who is interested in the look of the body Body-builders, models, anyone else who is interested in the look of the body Weight management participant Time under tension Length of time that a muscle bears load without rest Length of time that a muscle bears load without rest

6 5 Energy Systems ATP—What is it? (Hint: It’s not motor oil) ATP—What is it? (Hint: It’s not motor oil) How do we get ATP? How do we get ATP? 3 different sources, 3 different times, 3 different intensities: 3 different sources, 3 different times, 3 different intensities: Why do we care? Why do we care? By understanding how we get our energy (ATP), we understand what type of benefits we are going to get out of a particular exercise By understanding how we get our energy (ATP), we understand what type of benefits we are going to get out of a particular exercise ATP-CP system 1—10 seconds Intensity = HIGH Glycolysis 10 seconds—3 minutes Intensity = HIGH to MODERATE Aerobic Oxidation >3 minutes Intensity = MODERATE to LOW

7 6 Muscle Fiber Types Red fibers (aerobic) Red fibers (aerobic) Fatigue resistance –h low glycolytic capacity Fatigue resistance –h low glycolytic capacity Increased mitochondria Increased mitochondria Small motor neuron Small motor neuron Rich in capillary beds Rich in capillary beds 52% normal 52% normal Type I (slow twitch)Type IIa Pink fibers Pink fibers Moderate glycolytic & high oxidative capacities Moderate glycolytic & high oxidative capacities Can adapt towards Type I or Type IIb Can adapt towards Type I or Type IIb 30% normal 30% normal Type IIb (fast twitch) White fibers White fibers Large in diameter Large in diameter Fatigues rapidly Fatigues rapidly High glycolytic and low oxidative High glycolytic and low oxidative Large motor neuron Large motor neuron 12% normal 12% normal

8 7 Popular Programs Defined 3x-a-week basic program 3x-a-week basic program 5x-a-week basic program 5x-a-week basic program Body parts/split routine Body parts/split routine Circuit training Circuit training Cardio-interval circuit Cardio-interval circuit Peripheral vascular circuit Peripheral vascular circuit Super-set routines Super-set routines Giant set variations Giant set variations Compound/isolation routines Compound/isolation routines Super slow/slow velocity Super slow/slow velocity Plyometric training Plyometric training

9 Break

10 COMPARING AND CONTRASTING POPULAR FORMATS for EXERCISE PROGRAMMING John Doe, MA Parts 1 & 2

11 10 A Brief Word about the Research Clarifying Terms and Definitions Energy Systems/Muscle Fiber Types Popular Programs Defined Break Client Interview/Training Program Preparation Matching Goals: Needs vs. Wants Discussion of Research Agenda

12 11 Client Interview/ Training Program Preparation Refers to a yearly calendar Refers to a yearly calendar An Olympiad: Four years An Olympiad: Four years Marathon preparation: 18 months Marathon preparation: 18 months Macro Timeframe Refers to a monthly calendar Refers to a monthly calendar January through March: Pre-season January through March: Pre-season April through September: In season April through September: In season October through December: Off season October through December: Off season Meso Timeframe Refers to daily workout Refers to daily workout Long-distance vs. sprints Long-distance vs. sprints Higher vs. lower reps Higher vs. lower reps Intensity vs. duration Intensity vs. duration Micro Timeframe

13 12 Client Interview/ Training Program Preparation Prerequisites and Participant’s History Medical health questionnaire/Par-Q Medical health questionnaire/Par-Q Current health status Current health status Medications Medications Joint/muscular pains Joint/muscular pains Sleep quality/disorders Sleep quality/disorders Cigarettes/alcohol/other substances Cigarettes/alcohol/other substances Past movement history Past movement history Previous experience with trainers/gyms Previous experience with trainers/gyms Current motivational state of mind Current motivational state of mind Client’s goals vs. industry standards Client’s goals vs. industry standards

14 13 Client Interview/ Training Program Preparation Facility/equipment access Facility/equipment access Supervised/independent Supervised/independent Workouts, humidity & temperature concerns Workouts, humidity & temperature concerns Economic problems, problems with other members Economic problems, problems with other members Environmental Issues

15 14 Who Gets to Decide What the Program Goals and Objectives Are? Matching Goals: Needs vs. Wants Needs vs. Wants Keeping an Eye on the Big Picture Matching Specific Goals

16 15 Setting a Goal/Teaching a Skill What is the time frame? What is the time frame? Success to failure ratio? Success to failure ratio? Anticipating obstacles Anticipating obstacles Setting a Goal What is the purpose of the skill? What is the purpose of the skill? Determine the client’s learning style Determine the client’s learning style Demonstrate skill (w-p-w, p-p-w) Demonstrate skill (w-p-w, p-p-w) Have client perform the skill Have client perform the skill Teaching a Skill

17 16 Discussion of Research Exercise Guidelines — How many sets?Exercise Guidelines — How many reps? How much rest?

18 17 Exercise Guidelines — How many reps? How much rest? Discussion of Research

19 18 Discussion of Research Repetitions15—2012—154—88—121—4 Program Goals Muscular Endurance Strength & Endurance Maximal Strength General Strength Power Moderate Metabolic Development Maximal Metabolic Development Maximal Strength Development Submaximal Strength Development Maximal Power Development Program Benefits Minimal Strength Development Moderate Strength Development Moderate Power Development Minimal Metabolic Development Rest Time 0—30 seconds 0—60 seconds 3—5 minutes 2—3 minutes 5 minutes

20 19 Discussion of Research Loading for strength versus size Loading for strength versus size

21 20 Discussion of Research Loading for strength versus size Loading for strength versus size Stamina over recovery Stamina over recovery

22 21 Discussion of Research Loading for strength versus size Loading for strength versus size Stamina over recovery Stamina over recovery Sizing up for a specific sport/occupation Sizing up for a specific sport/occupation

23 22 Discussion of Research Loading for strength versus size Loading for strength versus size Stamina over recovery Stamina over recovery Sizing up for a specific sport/occupation Sizing up for a specific sport/occupation Injury prevention versus sport performance Injury prevention versus sport performance

24 23 Discussion of Research Loading for strength versus size Loading for strength versus size Stamina over recovery Stamina over recovery Sizing up for a specific sport/occupation Sizing up for a specific sport/occupation Injury prevention versus sport performance Injury prevention versus sport performance Off season, Off season,

25 24 Discussion of Research Loading for strength versus size Loading for strength versus size Stamina over recovery Stamina over recovery Sizing up for a specific sport/occupation Sizing up for a specific sport/occupation Injury prevention versus sport performance Injury prevention versus sport performance Off season, pre-season, Off season, pre-season,

26 25 Discussion of Research Loading for strength versus size Loading for strength versus size Stamina over recovery Stamina over recovery Sizing up for a specific sport/occupation Sizing up for a specific sport/occupation Injury prevention versus sport performance Injury prevention versus sport performance Off season, pre-season, and in season Off season, pre-season, and in season

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