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Chapter 11 – Comparative Cognition 1: Memory Mechanisms

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1 Chapter 11 – Comparative Cognition 1: Memory Mechanisms
Outline What is Comparative Cognition Animal Memory Paradigms Working and Reference Memory Delayed Matching to Sample Spatial Memory in mazes Memory Mechanisms Retrospective and Prospective Coding Forgetting Proactive and Retroactive Interference Retrograde Amnesia Directed Forgetting

2 Chapter 11 - Animal Cognition 1: Memory Mechanisms
What is Comparative Cognition? Zentall (1993) Animal Cognition is often best understood by explaining what it is not. Learned behavior that is left after simpler associative-learning explanations have been ruled out

3 We have already discussed an example of a cognitive experiment
Identity learning (Sameness) Train (MTS) RR+G- GR-G+ Test B B+Y- Y B-Y+ Notice the test involves novel stimuli This is often an important test in cognitive studies It makes it difficult to explain performance in test based on S-R –O relationships. There is no RF history of picking Blue following Blue Seems more likely performance is the result of an understanding of “sameness” A cognitive rule Pick the thing that looks the same.

4 What is Comparative Cognition? Continued
Domjan Theoretical constructs and models used to explain aspects of behavior that cannot be readily characterized in terms of simple S-R or reflex mechanisms. Key feature Always adopt the simplest possible explanation

5 What is Comparative Cognition? Continued
Must carefully avoid anthropomorphism Morgan’s Canon In no case may we interpret an action as the outcome of a higher psychical faculty, if it can be interpreted as the outcome of the exercise of one that stands lower in the psychological scale. At first the allure is weak; there is a vague yearning and a mild agitation. Ultimately, the strength of desire grows irresistible; its head turns sharply and it skitters across the uneven floor to caress the objects of its affection with consummate rapture Coin drawn to a magnet There are more parsimonious explanations for this behavior Clever Hans

6 What is Comparative Cognition? Continued
Often involves models of mental activity The internal clock (chapter 12) A model for how a biological clock might work Mental Representations What is the nature of a memory? It is not just a snap shot. It is some how changed to a neural code What is the nature of that code?

7 Animal Memory Paradigms
What is the difference between learning and memory? The main difference is how we study each. Study Learning We vary aspects of acquisition Hold retention interval and retrieval variables constant Study Memory Hold acquisition constant Vary retention intervals or variables related to retrieval


9 Types of memory Short term memory Long term memory
the phone number for pizza place Long term memory Episodic Picture yourself there (the episode) What did you have for dinner last night? What were you doing when you heard about the World Trade Center? Flash bulb Semantic Facts about the world Who was the first president? What year were you born? Procedural How to do things ride a bike, drive, swim sports musical instruments write

10 Explicit (declarative)
Knowing that you know (conscious awareness) Episodic is clearly declarative the person is clearly aware of learning they experienced. They have a conscious memory for it. Semantic is as well You know that-you-know the year you were born Clive Wearing had no episodic memory at all Still knew he had a wife and kids No memory of spending time with them

11 Implicit (nondeclarative or procedural)
This is learning that you are not consciously aware of. illustrated by priming experiments Also H.M. Mirror drawing task Also Clive Wearing Piano Much of the Pavlovian and Instrumental research we have discussed would fall under procedural We will discuss animal models of Episodic memory in Chapter 12

12 Working Memory and Reference Memory
another distinction that has received a lot of research interest in comparative cognition  Reference Memory Long-term retention of information necessary for the successful use of incoming and recently acquired information The rules of the game Working Memory Short-term information What did I just do? Cooking General recipe rules for making the dish Keep track of where you are What have I already done

13 Walter Hunter (1913). Problem with the study Rats, dogs, and raccoons.
Light indicates which of three compartments are baited. animal is confined in start area. Turn light on; then off to indicate which compartment was correct They are not allowed to choose for various lengths of time. Rats - 10 seconds. Racoons – 25 seconds Dogs – 5 minutes. Reference Memory? Working Memory? Problem with the study

14 Why is this technique better than Hunter’s?
Matching-to sample Simultaneous Delayed Why is this technique better than Hunter’s? Eliminates behavioral explanation for retention Face where you intend to go. Animal has no way of knowing which key will be correct Left vs. right = 50%

15 What affects an animals memory in a DMTS experiment?
1) nature of the sample stimulus affects DMTS performance Lines and shapes Colors

16 2. Sample Duration? Grant (1976) DMTS
4 colors R,G,B,Y Each trial begins with white center key Warning stimulus Peck  turns to sample (i.e., Red) Stays on for different durations 1,4,8, or 14 s Test with Delays (retention intervals) 0, 20, 40, or 60

17 Results (Figure 11.2) trace-decay hypothesis (Roberts & Grant, 1976). A simple idea, but clearly too simple.

18 3) Similarity between training and testing conditions
Instruction hypothesis (Zentall) What happens if animals are trained with a particular delay and tested with others? Sargisson and White (2001). Train with 0, 2, 4, or 6 s delays. Test with 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 s delays.

19 What does this say about forget curves?
Figure 11.3 0 – normal forget curve 2 – forget curve does not start until 4 s 4 – forget curve does not start until 6 s 6 – no forget curve.  What does this say about forget curves? Not just trace-decay Similarity between training and testing conditions are important

20 Spatial memory in mazes Spatial memory in mazes
Morris Water Maze

21 Train in a room with external cues
Door Pictures Light gradients Platform always in the same location Release from 4 different locations Randomly North, South, East, West Test? Escape latency (figure 11.4) Probe trials Path analysis.

22 Probe trial mouse


24 Spatial memory in the Radial arm maze
Olton and Samuelson (1976) Food at end of each arm Or a subset of arms Reference Memory? Working Memory?

25 You-tube vids of 8 arm maze
Normal mouse Knockout mouse with memory probs

26 How do the rats behave in radial arm maze?
Not a set sequence No strategy No odor cues They can handle long delays Let them choose four arms – four hours later they choose the other 4 Even after 24 hours they are performing above chance

27 Retrospective and Prospective Coding
How do the rats keep track of the arms of the maze? Retrospective keep track of where they have been Prospective keep track of where they are going Cook, Brown, and Riley (1985) 12 arm maze Let rats choose 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 , 9, 10, 11 arms. Remove the rat for 15 minutes Put them back in and complete the maze.

28 retrospective memory prospective memory
memory load would start out low increases with arms visited having a heavy memory load, should lead to more mistakes predicts few errors after 1 choice many errors after 11 choices. prospective memory Memory load starts out high Have 11 arms still in memory Decreases with arms visited Predicts many errors after 1 choice Few errors after 11 choices

29 Figure – Memory load following different numbers of places visited, out of a possible total of six, given retrospective and prospective coding strategies.

30 These predictions are in direct contradiction to one another. 
What do rats do? People?

31 Proactive and Retroactive interference Proactive interference
Forgetting Why does memory sometimes fail? Proactive and Retroactive interference Proactive interference Previous memories disrupt current memory Where did I park my car today? Retroactive interference New memories disrupt old memories Cumulative exams? Phone number from last apartment? Address?

32 Squire’s electroconvulsive shock study
Amnesia Anterograde Unable to form memory for events that occurred after the injury Retrograde Loss of memory for events prior to injury Squire’s electroconvulsive shock study Indicates that memories are vulnerable for an exceptionally long time 1 year old memories were especially vulnerable Older memories were relatively unaffected Implies some active processing of memory (memory consolidation) over an extended period of time.


34 Directed Forgetting It is known that humans can exert cognitive control over memory. Give a list of words to subjects to remember Tell them “okay – that was just practice. Forget about that list and get ready for the real list” After a retention interval you tell them that you lied. Please write down as many words from the original list that you can Compare to a group told to remember the list. Memory for the list is much poorer for those told to forget. Perhaps because they did not initiate memory maintaining strategies (rehearsal)

35 Can animals exert cognitive control over memory? Omission Procedure
Phase 1 MTS R R+G- GG+R- Phase 2 DMTS with cues R-VR+G- G-VG+R- R-HITI G-HITI Test with forget cues R-HR+G- G-HG+R- Compare to remember cues Result? Good performance on R-cued trials Poor performance on F-cued trials

36 Problems with Omission Procedure? Roper and Zentall (1993)
1. no response requirement following F-cues Pigeons are not used to making a choice following F-cues Thus, disrupts responding in test 2. no RF following F-cues. F-cue could act as a conditioned inhibitor Thus, disrupt responding in test 3. Presentations of comparisons following F-cues is novel The novel (or surprising) cues could disrupt performance

37 The substitution procedure corrects for the above issues.
Phase 1 MTS R R+G- GG+R- Phase 2 DMTS with cues R-VR+G- G-VG+R- R-HB+Y- G-HB+Y- Test with forget cues R-HR+G- G-HG+R- Compare to remember cues Result? Good performance on all trials No evidence for directed forgetting

38 Compare the human situation to that of the pigeon
Maintaining a bunch of words in memory is demanding Difficult to do The pigeons do not have nearly the same demands one sample to remember Red or Green There may be little cost to remembering regardless of the trial type. What if we increase the memory demand? Reallocation experiment Roper, Kaiser, and Zentall (1995) Train the pigeons with F-cues that they have to remember If they have to reallocate memory to the F-cue perhaps it will disrupt memory for the original sample





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