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Magnetic Force

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. Strength of Magnetic Force A charged particle moving in a magnetic field experiences a force that is perpendicular to BOTH the particle’s velocity and to the magnetic field itself.

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. F = qvB sin Strength of Magnetic Force A charged particle moving in a magnetic field experiences a force that is perpendicular to BOTH the particle’s velocity and to the magnetic field itself. Lorentz Force Law: The magnitude of the magnetic force on a moving, charged particle is ( is the angle between the charge’s velocity and the magnetic field)

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F = qvB sin Sin 0, 180 = 0 If a charge has velocity in the same (or opposite) direction of the magnetic field, it experiences no force! Sin 90 = 1 A charge that has velocity perpendicular to the magnetic field experiences the greatest force!

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Question? The three charges below have equal charge and speed, but are traveling in different directions in a uniform magnetic field. Which particle experiences the greatest magnetic force? Same B F = q v B sin

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charge q moving with velocity v in the mag. field B vB. The direction of the magnetic force is given by the Right-Hand Rule ► Point fingers in v (or current I) direction F positive charge F negative charge ► Curl fingers as if rotating vector v (current I) into B. vector v (current I) into B. ► Thumb is in the direction of the force. force. ● For negative charge force is in the opposite direction in the opposite direction F is perpendicular to the plane of v and B

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Convention for magnetic field direction: x x x x x x x INTO Page OUT of Page OUT of Page Right Hand Rule Practice A proton enters a magnetic field, as shown. Which way will the electron turn? 1.Up 2.Down 3.Out of page 4.Into page

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Convention for magnetic field direction: x x x x x x x INTO Page OUT of Page OUT of Page Right Hand Rule Practice A proton enters a magnetic field, as shown. Which way will the electron turn? 1.Up 2.Down 3.Out of page 4.Into page Put your fingers in the direction of the velocity and curl out of the page … your thumb points up

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Convention for magnetic field direction: x x x x x x x INTO Page OUT of Page OUT of Page Right Hand Rule Practice An electron enters a magnetic field, as shown. Which way will the electron turn? 1.Up 2.Down 3.Out of page 4.Into page

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Convention for magnetic field direction: x x x x x x x INTO Page OUT of Page OUT of Page Right Hand Rule Practice An electron enters a magnetic field, as shown. Which way will the electron turn? 1.Up 2.Down 3.Out of page 4.Into page Remember to flip the direction of the force for negative charges

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Convention for magnetic field direction: x x x x x x x INTO Page OUT of Page OUT of Page Right Hand Rule Practice In which direction will wire segment B be pushed? 1.Up 2.Down 3.Out of page 4.Into page 5.No force exists

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Convention for magnetic field direction: x x x x x x x INTO Page OUT of Page OUT of Page Right Hand Rule Practice In which direction will wire segment B be pushed? 1.Up 2.Down 3.Out of page 4.Into page 5.No force exists

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Convention for magnetic field direction: x x x x x x x INTO Page OUT of Page OUT of Page Right Hand Rule Practice In which direction will wire segment C be pushed? 1.Up 2.Down 3.Out of page 4.Into page 5.No force exists

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Convention for magnetic field direction: x x x x x x x INTO Page OUT of Page OUT of Page Right Hand Rule Practice In which direction will wire segment C be pushed? 1.Up 2.Down 3.Out of page 4.Into page 5.No force exists V and B are in the same direction; no force exists.

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We define the magnitude of the magnetic field by measuring the force on a moving charge : vB The SI unit of magnetic field is the Tesla (T), named after Nikola Tesla, a Croatian physicist. Nikola Tesla 1 T = 1 N·s/(C·m) Magnitude of the magnetic field

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Magnetic Field & Magnetic Force Problems We do: What is the minimum magnetic field necessary to exert a 5.4 X N force on an electron moving at 2.1 X 10 7 m/s?

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Magnetic Field & Magnetic Force Problems We do: What is the minimum magnetic field necessary to exert a 5.4 X N force on an electron moving at 2.1 X 10 7 m/s? B = F / qvsinθ B will be at a minimum when sin θ = 1 B = F / qv = 5.4X N / (1.6 X C X 2.1 X 10 7 m/s) B = 1.61 X T

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Magnetic Field & Magnetic Force Problems You do: What is the magnetic field necessary to exert a 5.4 X N force on an electron moving at 2.1 X 10 7 m/s if the magnetic field is at 45 degrees from the electron’s velocity?

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Magnetic Field & Magnetic Force Problems You do: What is the magnetic field necessary to exert a 5.4 X N force on an electron moving at 2.1 X 10 7 m/s if the magnetic field is at 45 degrees from the electron’s velocity? B = F / qvsinθ = 5.4X N / (1.6 X C X 2.1 X 10 7 m/s X sin 45) B = 2.3 X T.

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Magnetic Field & Magnetic Force Problems We do and You do What is the magnitude of the magnetic force on a proton moving at 2.5 X 10 5 m/s in a magnetic field of 0.5 T … (a)…if the velocity and magnetic field are at right angles? (b)… if the velocity and magnetic field are at 30°? (c) … if the velocity is parallel to a magnetic field?

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Magnetic Field & Magnetic Force Problems We do and You do What is the magnitude of the magnetic force on a proton moving at 2.5 X 10 5 m/s in a magnetic field of 0.5 T … (a)…if the velocity and magnetic field are at right angles? (b)… if the velocity and magnetic field are at 30°? (c) … if the velocity is parallel to a magnetic field? F = qvBsinθ, so (a) when θ = 90°, F = (1.6 X C)(2.5 X 10 5 m/s)(0.5 T) = 2.0 X N, (b) F = (2.0 X N) sin 30° = 1.0 X N, and (c) F = qvB sin 0° = 0.

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Comparison of Electric and Magnetic Forces Using your notes, and working in small groups (3 or less), compare the electric and magnetic forces in terms of: Magnitude Direction Work done Effect on charged particles

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The electric force: F elec = Eq The magnetic force: F mag = qvB sin Comparison of Electric and Magnetic Forces is always parallel to the direction of the electric field. acts on a charged particle independent of the particle’s velocity does work when moving charge: The work, W = F el d cosθ 1, is converted into kinetic / thermal energy. The electric field accelerates charged particles. is always perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field acts on a charged particle only when the particle is in motion (F=0 if v=0), and only if v and B do not point in the same or opposite direction (sin = sin = 0). Force is perpendicular to motion so the work done by magnetic force is zero. W = F mag d cos (cos 90 0 = 0). Change in kinetic energy of the charge is 0 In the presence of magnetic field, the moving charged particle is deflected (dotted lines)

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