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**Chapters 7&8 Newton’s 3rd Law & Momentum**

Conceptual Physics

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**For every force, there is an equal and opposite force.**

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**In the simplest sense, a force is a push or a pull. **

7.1 Forces and Interactions In the simplest sense, a force is a push or a pull. A mutual action is an interaction between one thing and another.

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**7.1 Forces and Interactions**

The interaction that drives the nail is the same as the one that halts the hammer.

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**A hammer exerts a force on the nail and drives it into a board. **

7.1 Forces and Interactions A hammer exerts a force on the nail and drives it into a board. There must also be a force exerted on the hammer to halt it in the process. Newton reasoned that while the hammer exerts a force on the nail, the nail exerts a force on the hammer. In the interaction, there are a pair of forces, one acting on the nail and the other acting on the hammer.

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**Does a stick of dynamite contain force? Explain.**

7.1 Forces and Interactions think! Does a stick of dynamite contain force? Explain.

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**Does a stick of dynamite contain force? Explain. **

7.1 Forces and Interactions think! Does a stick of dynamite contain force? Explain. Answer: No. Force is not something an object has, like mass. Force is an interaction between one object and another. An object may possess the capability of exerting a force on another object, but it cannot possess force as a thing in itself. Later we will see that something like a stick of dynamite possesses energy.

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7.2 Newton’s Third Law Newton’s third law states that whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first object.

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**One force is called the action force. **

7.2 Newton’s Third Law Newton’s third law describes the relationship between two forces in an interaction. One force is called the action force. The other force is called the reaction force. Neither force exists without the other. They are equal in strength and opposite in direction. They occur at the same time (simultaneously).

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**In every interaction, the forces always occur in pairs. **

7.2 Newton’s Third Law In every interaction, the forces always occur in pairs. You push against the floor, and the floor simultaneously pushes against you. The tires of a car interact with the road to produce the car’s motion. The tires push against the road, and the road simultaneously pushes back on the tires. When swimming, you push the water backward, and the water pushes you forward.

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**The interactions in these examples depend on friction. **

7.2 Newton’s Third Law The interactions in these examples depend on friction. A person trying to walk on ice, where friction is minimal, may not be able to exert an action force against the ice. Without the action force there cannot be a reaction force, and thus there is no resulting forward motion.

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**When the girl jumps to shore, the boat moves backward.**

7.2 Newton’s Third Law When the girl jumps to shore, the boat moves backward.

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**7.3 Identifying Action and Reaction**

To identify a pair of action-reaction forces, first identify the interacting objects A and B, and if the action is A on B, the reaction is B on A.

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**There is a simple recipe for treating action and reaction forces: **

7.3 Identifying Action and Reaction There is a simple recipe for treating action and reaction forces: First identify the interaction. Let’s say one object, A, interacts with another object, B. The action and reaction forces are stated in the form: Action: Object A exerts a force on object B. Reaction: Object B exerts a force on object A.

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**7.3 Identifying Action and Reaction**

When action is A exerts force on B, the reaction is simply B exerts force on A.

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**7.3 Identifying Action and Reaction**

When action is A exerts force on B, the reaction is simply B exerts force on A.

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**7.4 Action and Reaction on Different Masses**

A given force exerted on a small mass produces a greater acceleration than the same force exerted on a large mass.

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**7.4 Action and Reaction on Different Masses**

Earth is pulled up by the boulder with just as much force as the boulder is pulled down by Earth.

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**The forces are equal in strength and opposite in direction. **

7.4 Action and Reaction on Different Masses In the interaction between the boulder and Earth, the boulder pulls up on Earth with as much force as Earth pulls down on the boulder. The forces are equal in strength and opposite in direction. The boulder falls to Earth and Earth falls to the boulder, but the distance Earth falls is much less.

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**7.4 Action and Reaction on Different Masses**

Force and Mass When a cannon is fired, there is an interaction between the cannon and the cannonball. The force the cannon exerts on the cannonball is exactly equal and opposite to the force the cannonball exerts on the cannon. You might expect the cannon to kick more than it does. The cannonball moves so fast compared with the cannon. According to Newton’s second law, we must also consider the masses.

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**7.4 Action and Reaction on Different Masses**

The cannonball undergoes more acceleration than the cannon because its mass is much smaller.

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**7.4 Action and Reaction on Different Masses**

F represents both the action and reaction forces; m (large), the mass of the cannon; and m (small), the mass of the cannonball. Do you see why the change in the velocity of the cannonball is greater compared with the change in velocity of the cannon?

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**7.4 Action and Reaction on Different Masses**

We can extend the basic idea of a cannon recoiling from the cannonball it launches to understand rocket propulsion.

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**7.4 Action and Reaction on Different Masses**

A common misconception is that a rocket is propelled by the impact of exhaust gases against the atmosphere. Both the rocket and recoiling cannon accelerate because of the reaction forces created by the “cannonballs” they fire—air or no air. In fact, rockets work better above the atmosphere where there is no air resistance.

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**The whirling blades force air particles downward (action). **

7.4 Action and Reaction on Different Masses Lift Using Newton’s third law, we can understand how a helicopter gets its lifting force. The whirling blades force air particles downward (action). The air forces the blades upward (reaction). This upward reaction force is called lift. When lift equals the weight of the craft, the helicopter hovers in midair. When lift is greater, the helicopter climbs upward.

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7.5 Defining Systems Action and reaction forces do not cancel each other when either of the forces is external to the system being considered.

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**To answer this question, we must consider the system involved.**

7.5 Defining Systems Since action and reaction forces are equal and opposite, why don’t they cancel to zero? To answer this question, we must consider the system involved.

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**A force acts on the orange, and the orange accelerates to the right. **

7.5 Defining Systems A force acts on the orange, and the orange accelerates to the right. The dashed line surrounding the orange encloses and defines the system.

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7.5 Defining Systems The force on the orange, provided by the apple, is not cancelled by the reaction force on the apple. The orange still accelerates.

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7.5 Defining Systems The force is provided by an apple, which doesn’t change our analysis. The apple is outside the system. The fact that the orange simultaneously exerts a force on the apple, which is external to the system, may affect the apple (another system), but not the orange. You can’t cancel a force on the orange with a force on the apple. So in this case the action and reaction forces don’t cancel.

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7.5 Defining Systems Action and reaction forces cancel. When the floor pushes on the apple (reaction to the apple’s push on the floor), the orange-apple system accelerates.

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**7.6 The Horse-Cart Problem**

If the horse in the horse-cart system pushes the ground with a greater force than it pulls on the cart, there is a net force on the horse, and the horse-cart system accelerates.

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**7.6 The Horse-Cart Problem**

All the pairs of forces that act on the horse and cart are shown. The acceleration of the horse-cart system is due to the net force F – f.

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**The farmer doesn’t care about the reaction on the horse.**

7.6 The Horse-Cart Problem Will the horse’s pull on the cart be canceled by the opposite and equal pull by the cart on the horse, thus making acceleration impossible? From the farmer’s point of view, the only concern is with the force that is exerted on the cart system. The net force on the cart, divided by the mass of the cart, is the acceleration. The farmer doesn’t care about the reaction on the horse.

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**Now look at the horse system. **

7.6 The Horse-Cart Problem Now look at the horse system. The opposite reaction force by the cart on the horse restrains the horse. Without this force, the horse could freely gallop to the market. The horse moves forward by interacting with the ground. When the horse pushes backward on the ground, the ground simultaneously pushes forward on the horse.

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**Look at the horse-cart system as a whole. **

7.6 The Horse-Cart Problem Look at the horse-cart system as a whole. The pull of the horse on the cart and the reaction of the cart on the horse are internal forces within the system. They contribute nothing to the acceleration of the horse-cart system. They cancel and can be neglected.

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**It is the outside reaction by the ground that pushes the system.**

7.6 The Horse-Cart Problem To move across the ground, there must be an interaction between the horse-cart system and the ground. It is the outside reaction by the ground that pushes the system.

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**7.6 The Horse-Cart Problem**

think! What is the net force that acts on the cart? On the horse? On the ground?

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**7.6 The Horse-Cart Problem**

think! What is the net force that acts on the cart? On the horse? On the ground? Answer: The net force on the cart is P–f; on the horse, F–P; on the ground F–f.

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**7.7 Action Equals Reaction**

For every interaction between things, there is always a pair of oppositely directed forces that are equal in strength.

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**If you hit the wall, it will hit you equally hard.**

7.7 Action Equals Reaction If you hit the wall, it will hit you equally hard.

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**7.7 Action Equals Reaction**

If a sheet of paper is held in midair, the heavyweight champion of the world could not strike the paper with a force of 200 N (45 pounds). The paper is not capable of exerting a reaction force of 200 N, and you cannot have an action force without a reaction force. If the paper is against the wall, then the wall will easily assist the paper in providing 200 N of reaction force, and more if needed!

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**7.7 Action Equals Reaction**

If you push hard on the world, for example, the world pushes hard on you. If you touch the world gently, the world will touch you gently in return.

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**What must occur in every interaction between things?**

7.7 Action Equals Reaction What must occur in every interaction between things?

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**A force interaction requires at least a(n) single force. **

Assessment Questions A force interaction requires at least a(n) single force. pair of forces. action force. reaction force.

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**A force interaction requires at least a(n) single force. **

Assessment Questions A force interaction requires at least a(n) single force. pair of forces. action force. reaction force. Answer: B

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**opposite in direction and equal in magnitude at the same time. **

Assessment Questions Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts a force on the first that is opposite in direction and equal in magnitude at the same time. in the same direction and equal in magnitude a moment later. opposite in direction and greater in magnitude at the same time. in the same direction and weaker in magnitude a moment later.

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Assessment Questions Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts a force on the first that is opposite in direction and equal in magnitude at the same time. in the same direction and equal in magnitude a moment later. opposite in direction and greater in magnitude at the same time. in the same direction and weaker in magnitude a moment later. Answer: A

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Assessment Questions The force that directly propels a motor scooter along a highway is that provided by the engine. fuel. tires. road.

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Assessment Questions The force that directly propels a motor scooter along a highway is that provided by the engine. fuel. tires. road. Answer: D

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**When you jump vertically upward, strictly speaking, you cause Earth to **

Assessment Questions When you jump vertically upward, strictly speaking, you cause Earth to move downward. also move upward with you. remain stationary. move sideways a bit.

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**When you jump vertically upward, strictly speaking, you cause Earth to **

Assessment Questions When you jump vertically upward, strictly speaking, you cause Earth to move downward. also move upward with you. remain stationary. move sideways a bit. Answer: A

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**A system undergoes acceleration only when acted on by a(n) net force. **

Assessment Questions A system undergoes acceleration only when acted on by a(n) net force. pair of forces. action and reaction forces. internal interactions.

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**A system undergoes acceleration only when acted on by a(n) net force. **

Assessment Questions A system undergoes acceleration only when acted on by a(n) net force. pair of forces. action and reaction forces. internal interactions. Answer: A

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**If a net force acts on a horse while it is pulling a wagon, the horse **

Assessment Questions If a net force acts on a horse while it is pulling a wagon, the horse accelerates. is restrained. is pulled backward by an equal and opposite net force. cannot move.

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**If a net force acts on a horse while it is pulling a wagon, the horse **

Assessment Questions If a net force acts on a horse while it is pulling a wagon, the horse accelerates. is restrained. is pulled backward by an equal and opposite net force. cannot move. Answer: A

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Assessment Questions At a pizza shop, the cook throws the pizza dough in the air. The amount of force the cook exerts on the dough depends on the mass of the dough. strength of the cook. weight of the dough. height of the cook.

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Assessment Questions At a pizza shop, the cook throws the pizza dough in the air. The amount of force the cook exerts on the dough depends on the mass of the dough. strength of the cook. weight of the dough. height of the cook. Answer: A

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**Momentum is conserved for all collisions as long as external forces don’t interfere.**

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**Momentum is the mass of an object multiplied by its velocity.**

momentum = mass × velocity momentum = mv When direction is not an important factor, momentum = mass × speed

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**A fast car can have more momentum than a slow truck. **

A moving truck has more momentum than a car moving at the same speed because the truck has more mass. A fast car can have more momentum than a slow truck. A truck at rest has no momentum at all.

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8.1 Momentum A truck rolling down a hill has more momentum than a roller skate with the same speed. But if the truck is at rest and the roller skate moves, then the skate has more momentum.

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**8.2 Impulse Changes Momentum**

The change in momentum depends on the force that acts and the length of time it acts.

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**8.2 Impulse Changes Momentum**

If the momentum of an object changes, either the mass or the velocity or both change. The greater the force acting on an object, the greater its change in velocity and the greater its change in momentum.

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**Both force and time are important in changing an object’s momentum.**

8.2 Impulse Changes Momentum Impulse A force sustained for a long time produces more change in momentum than does the same force applied briefly. Both force and time are important in changing an object’s momentum.

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**The quantity force × time interval is called impulse. impulse = F × t **

8.2 Impulse Changes Momentum The quantity force × time interval is called impulse. impulse = F × t The greater the impulse exerted on something, the greater will be the change in momentum. impulse = change in momentum Ft = ∆(mv)

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**8.2 Impulse Changes Momentum**

Increasing Momentum To increase the momentum of an object, apply the greatest force possible for as long as possible. A golfer teeing off and a baseball player trying for a home run do both of these things when they swing as hard as possible and follow through with their swing.

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**8.2 Impulse Changes Momentum**

The force of impact on a golf ball varies throughout the duration of impact.

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**The forces involved in impulses usually vary from instant to instant. **

8.2 Impulse Changes Momentum The forces involved in impulses usually vary from instant to instant. A golf club that strikes a golf ball exerts zero force on the ball until it comes in contact with it. The force increases rapidly as the ball becomes distorted. The force diminishes as the ball comes up to speed and returns to its original shape. We can use the average force to solve for the impulse on an object.

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**8.2 Impulse Changes Momentum**

Decreasing Momentum If you were in a car that was out of control and had to choose between hitting a haystack or a concrete wall, you would choose the haystack. Physics helps you to understand why hitting a soft object is entirely different from hitting a hard one.

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**8.2 Impulse Changes Momentum**

If the change in momentum occurs over a long time, the force of impact is small.

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**8.2 Impulse Changes Momentum**

If the change in momentum occurs over a short time, the force of impact is large.

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**It means the same product of force and time. **

8.2 Impulse Changes Momentum When hitting either the wall or the haystack and coming to a stop, the momentum is decreased by the same impulse. The same impulse does not mean the same amount of force or the same amount of time. It means the same product of force and time. To keep the force small, we extend the time.

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**8.2 Impulse Changes Momentum**

When you jump down to the ground, bend your knees when your feet make contact with the ground to extend the time during which your momentum decreases. A wrestler thrown to the floor extends his time of hitting the mat, spreading the impulse into a series of smaller ones as his foot, knee, hip, ribs, and shoulder successively hit the mat.

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**8.2 Impulse Changes Momentum**

think! When a dish falls, will the impulse be less if it lands on a carpet than if it lands on a hard floor?

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**8.2 Impulse Changes Momentum**

think! When a dish falls, will the impulse be less if it lands on a carpet than if it lands on a hard floor? Answer: No. The impulse would be the same for either surface because the same momentum change occurs for each. It is the force that is less for the impulse on the carpet because of the greater time of momentum change.

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**8.2 Impulse Changes Momentum**

think! If a boxer is able to make the contact time five times longer by “riding” with the punch, how much will the force of the punch impact be reduced?

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**8.2 Impulse Changes Momentum**

think! If a boxer is able to make the contact time five times longer by “riding” with the punch, how much will the force of the punch impact be reduced? Answer: Since the time of impact increases five times, the force of impact will be reduced five times.

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8.3 Bouncing The impulse required to bring an object to a stop and then to “throw it back again” is greater than the impulse required merely to bring the object to a stop.

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**Suppose you catch a falling pot with your hands. **

8.3 Bouncing Suppose you catch a falling pot with your hands. You provide an impulse to reduce its momentum to zero. If you throw the pot upward again, you have to provide additional impulse.

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8.3 Bouncing If the flower pot falls from a shelf onto your head, you may be in trouble. If it bounces from your head, you may be in more serious trouble because impulses are greater when an object bounces. The increased impulse is supplied by your head if the pot bounces.

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8.3 Bouncing The block topples when the swinging dart bounces from it. Without the rubber head of the dart, it doesn’t bounce when it hits the block and no toppling occurs.

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8.3 Bouncing The waterwheels used in gold mining operations during the California Gold Rush were not very effective. Lester A. Pelton designed a curve-shaped paddle that caused the incoming water to make a U-turn upon impact. The water “bounced,” increasing the impulse exerted on the waterwheel.

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8.3 Bouncing The curved blades of the Pelton Wheel cause water to bounce and make a U-turn, producing a large impulse that turns the wheel.

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**8.4 Conservation of Momentum**

The law of conservation of momentum states that, in the absence of an external force, the momentum of a system remains unchanged.

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**8.4 Conservation of Momentum**

The momentum before firing is zero. After firing, the net momentum is still zero because the momentum of the cannon is equal and opposite to the momentum of the cannonball.

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**Before the firing, the momentum is zero. **

8.4 Conservation of Momentum The force on the cannonball inside the cannon barrel is equal and opposite to the force causing the cannon to recoil. The action and reaction forces are internal to the system so they don’t change the momentum of the cannon-cannonball system. Before the firing, the momentum is zero. After the firing, the net momentum is still zero. Net momentum is neither gained nor lost.

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**8.4 Conservation of Momentum**

Momentum has both direction and magnitude. It is a vector quantity. The cannonball gains momentum and the recoiling cannon gains momentum in the opposite direction. The cannon-cannonball system gains none. The momenta of the cannonball and the cannon are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. No net force acts on the system so there is no net impulse on the system and there is no net change in the momentum.

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**atomic nuclei undergoing radioactive decay, cars colliding, and **

8.4 Conservation of Momentum The law of conservation of momentum describes the momentum of a system: If a system undergoes changes wherein all forces are internal, the net momentum of the system before and after the event is the same. Examples are: atomic nuclei undergoing radioactive decay, cars colliding, and stars exploding.

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**8.4 Conservation of Momentum**

think! Newton’s second law states that if no net force is exerted on a system, no acceleration occurs. Does it follow that no change in momentum occurs?

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**8.4 Conservation of Momentum**

think! Newton’s second law states that if no net force is exerted on a system, no acceleration occurs. Does it follow that no change in momentum occurs? Answer: Yes, because no acceleration means that no change occurs in velocity or in momentum (mass × velocity). Another line of reasoning is simply that no net force means there is no net impulse and thus no change in momentum.

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8.5 Collisions Whenever objects collide in the absence of external forces, the net momentum of the objects before the collision equals the net momentum of the objects after the collision.

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**The collision of objects clearly shows the conservation of momentum.**

8.5 Collisions The collision of objects clearly shows the conservation of momentum.

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**Momentum is transferred from the first ball to the second ball.**

8.5 Collisions Elastic Collisions When a moving billiard ball collides head-on with a ball at rest, the first ball comes to rest and the second ball moves away with a velocity equal to the initial velocity of the first ball. Momentum is transferred from the first ball to the second ball.

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**Colliding objects bounce perfectly in perfect elastic collisions. **

When objects collide without being permanently deformed and without generating heat, the collision is an elastic collision. Colliding objects bounce perfectly in perfect elastic collisions. The sum of the momentum vectors is the same before and after each collision.

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**A moving ball strikes a ball at rest.**

8.5 Collisions A moving ball strikes a ball at rest.

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**A moving ball strikes a ball at rest. **

8.5 Collisions A moving ball strikes a ball at rest. Two moving balls collide head-on.

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**A moving ball strikes a ball at rest. **

8.5 Collisions A moving ball strikes a ball at rest. Two moving balls collide head-on. Two balls moving in the same direction collide.

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**Momentum conservation holds true even in inelastic collisions. **

A collision in which the colliding objects become distorted and generate heat during the collision is an inelastic collision. Momentum conservation holds true even in inelastic collisions. Whenever colliding objects become tangled or couple together, a totally inelastic collision occurs.

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8.5 Collisions In an inelastic collision between two freight cars, the momentum of the freight car on the left is shared with the freight car on the right.

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**net momentum before = net momentum after **

8.5 Collisions The freight cars are of equal mass m, and one car moves at 4 m/s toward the other car that is at rest. net momentum before = net momentum after (net mv)before = (net mv)after (m)(4 m/s) + (m)(0 m/s) = (2m)(vafter)

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8.5 Collisions Twice as much mass is moving after the collision, so the velocity, vafter, must be one half of 4 m/s. vafter = 2 m/s in the same direction as the velocity before the collision, vbefore.

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**The initial momentum is shared by both cars without loss or gain.**

8.5 Collisions The initial momentum is shared by both cars without loss or gain. Momentum is conserved. External forces are usually negligible during the collision, so the net momentum does not change during collision.

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**External forces may have an effect after the collision: **

8.5 Collisions External forces may have an effect after the collision: Billiard balls encounter friction with the table and the air. After a collision of two trucks, the combined wreck slides along the pavement and friction decreases its momentum. Two space vehicles docking in orbit have the same net momentum just before and just after contact. Since there is no air resistance in space, the combined momentum is then changed only by gravity.

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8.5 Collisions Perfectly elastic collisions are not common in the everyday world. Drop a ball and after it bounces from the floor, both the ball and the floor are a bit warmer. At the microscopic level, however, perfectly elastic collisions are commonplace. For example, electrically charged particles bounce off one another without generating heat; they don’t even touch in the classic sense of the word.

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8.5 Collisions think! One glider is loaded so it has three times the mass of another glider. The loaded glider is initially at rest. The unloaded glider collides with the loaded glider and the two gliders stick together. Describe the motion of the gliders after the collision.

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8.5 Collisions think! One glider is loaded so it has three times the mass of another glider. The loaded glider is initially at rest. The unloaded glider collides with the loaded glider and the two gliders stick together. Describe the motion of the gliders after the collision. Answer: The mass of the stuck-together gliders is four times that of the unloaded glider. The velocity of the stuck-together gliders is one fourth of the unloaded glider’s velocity before collision. This velocity is in the same direction as before, since the direction as well as the amount of momentum is conserved.

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8.5 Collisions do the math! Consider a 6-kg fish that swims toward and swallows a 2-kg fish that is at rest. If the larger fish swims at 1 m/s, what is its velocity immediately after lunch?

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8.5 Collisions do the math! Consider a 6-kg fish that swims toward and swallows a 2-kg fish that is at rest. If the larger fish swims at 1 m/s, what is its velocity immediately after lunch? Momentum is conserved from the instant before lunch until the instant after (in so brief an interval, water resistance does not have time to change the momentum).

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8.5 Collisions do the math!

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8.5 Collisions do the math! Suppose the small fish is not at rest but is swimming toward the large fish at 2 m/s.

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8.5 Collisions do the math! Suppose the small fish is not at rest but is swimming toward the large fish at 2 m/s. If we consider the direction of the large fish as positive, then the velocity of the small fish is –2 m/s.

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**The negative momentum of the small fish slows the large fish.**

8.5 Collisions do the math! The negative momentum of the small fish slows the large fish.

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8.5 Collisions do the math! If the small fish were swimming at –3 m/s, then both fish would have equal and opposite momenta. Zero momentum before lunch would equal zero momentum after lunch, and both fish would come to a halt.

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**Suppose the small fish swims at –4 m/s. **

8.5 Collisions do the math! Suppose the small fish swims at –4 m/s. The minus sign tells us that after lunch the two-fish system moves in a direction opposite to the large fish’s direction before lunch.

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**How does conservation of momentum apply to collisions?**

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8.6 Momentum Vectors The vector sum of the momenta is the same before and after a collision.

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8.6 Momentum Vectors Momentum is conserved even when interacting objects don’t move along the same straight line. To analyze momentum in any direction, we use the vector techniques we’ve previously learned. We’ll look at momentum conservation involving angles by considering three examples.

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8.6 Momentum Vectors Momentum is a vector quantity. The momentum of the wreck is equal to the vector sum of the momenta of car A and car B before the collision.

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8.6 Momentum Vectors The momentum of car A is directed due east and that of car B is directed due north. If their momenta are equal in magnitude, after colliding their combined momentum will be in a northeast direction with a magnitude times the momentum either vehicle had before the collision.

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8.6 Momentum Vectors When the firecracker bursts, the vector sum of the momenta of its fragments add up to the firecracker’s momentum just before bursting.

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**A falling firecracker explodes into two pieces. **

8.6 Momentum Vectors A falling firecracker explodes into two pieces. The momenta of the fragments combine by vector rules to equal the original momentum of the falling firecracker.

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8.6 Momentum Vectors Momentum is conserved for the high-speed elementary particles, as shown by the tracks they leave in a bubble chamber.

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**Subatomic particles make tracks in a bubble chamber. **

8.6 Momentum Vectors Subatomic particles make tracks in a bubble chamber. The mass of these particles can be computed by applying both the conservation of momentum and conservation of energy laws. The conservation laws are extremely useful to experimenters in the atomic and subatomic realms.

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**What is true about the vector sum of momenta in a collision?**

8.6 Momentum Vectors What is true about the vector sum of momenta in a collision?

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**When the speed of an object is doubled, its momentum **

Assessment Questions When the speed of an object is doubled, its momentum remains unchanged in accord with the conservation of momentum. doubles. quadruples. decreases.

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**When the speed of an object is doubled, its momentum **

Assessment Questions When the speed of an object is doubled, its momentum remains unchanged in accord with the conservation of momentum. doubles. quadruples. decreases. Answer: B

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**The impulse-momentum relationship is a direct result of Newton’s **

Assessment Questions The impulse-momentum relationship is a direct result of Newton’s first law. second law. third law. law of gravity.

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**The impulse-momentum relationship is a direct result of Newton’s **

Assessment Questions The impulse-momentum relationship is a direct result of Newton’s first law. second law. third law. law of gravity. Answer: B

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**greater than for stopping. the same as it is for stopping. **

Assessment Questions When a falling object bounces, as it hits the ground its change in momentum and the impulse on it is less than for stopping. greater than for stopping. the same as it is for stopping. the same as it was when dropped.

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**greater than for stopping. the same as it is for stopping. **

Assessment Questions When a falling object bounces, as it hits the ground its change in momentum and the impulse on it is less than for stopping. greater than for stopping. the same as it is for stopping. the same as it was when dropped. Answer: B

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Assessment Questions On roller blades you horizontally toss a ball away from you. The mass of the ball is one tenth your mass. Compared with the speed you give to the ball, your recoil speed will ideally be one tenth as much. the same. ten times as much. 100 times as much.

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Assessment Questions On roller blades you horizontally toss a ball away from you. The mass of the ball is one tenth your mass. Compared with the speed you give to the ball, your recoil speed will ideally be one tenth as much. the same. ten times as much. 100 times as much. Answer: A

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Assessment Questions A big fish swims upon and swallows a small fish at rest. After lunch, the big fish has less speed. momentum. both of these none of these

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Assessment Questions A big fish swims upon and swallows a small fish at rest. After lunch, the big fish has less speed. momentum. both of these none of these Answer: A

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**combined have the same momentum. each have half as much momentum. **

Assessment Questions A falling firecracker bursts into two pieces. Compared with the momentum of the firecracker when it bursts, the two pieces combined have the same momentum. each have half as much momentum. have more momentum. may or may not have more momentum.

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**combined have the same momentum. each have half as much momentum. **

Assessment Questions A falling firecracker bursts into two pieces. Compared with the momentum of the firecracker when it bursts, the two pieces combined have the same momentum. each have half as much momentum. have more momentum. may or may not have more momentum. Answer: A

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Momentum Conservations Notes

Momentum Conservations Notes

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