Highly confidential, Mars Inc Access Availability Utilization FOOD SECURITY Raw Materials Pathogens Cross-Contamination FOOD SAFETY Mitigating for these risks allows us to: Make more food available Reduce demand for increased production Manage environmental footprint Lower food production costs Expanded trade opportunities Reduced hunger and poverty Processing Packaging Storage Distribution Point of sale Storage Handling Consumption Inputs Harvesting Post harvest handling Storage Transportation POVERTY CLIMATE CHANGE Agricultural Production Food Manufacturing Consumer Contact
Highly confidential, Mars Inc Secondary fungal metabolites that exert toxic effects on animals and human beings. More than 300 secondary metabolites have been described but only thirty really exert toxic effects. Health impact varies based on mycotoxin type and quantity consumed The chemical structures of mycotoxins are very diverse Polyacetates :aflatoxins, citrinine, ochratoxins patulin, zearalenone, fumonisins, Terpenes : trichothecenes (sesqui), tremorgenes, Peptides : ergotamin (alcaloïdes), tryptoquivaline,.. Piperazines : sporidesmin, gliotoxin, roquefortine,.. Aflatoxin B1 Deoxynivalenol Fumonisin B1 Zearalenone Ochratoxin A
Prevalence of mycotoxin – changes in risk areas EFSA’s Emerging Risks Unit identified changing patterns in mycotoxin contamination due to climate change especially aflatoxins, in cereals such as wheat, maize and rice Shift of supply regions may also introduce new risks of mycotoxin control +2 o C climate change scenario EFSA Prediction for risk of aflatoxin B 1 contamination in maize +5 o C climate change scenario
Highly confidential Mars Inc. People Hepatic carcinoma Stunting in children Pets Acute hepatic failure Deaths Planet Economic impact through health care costs and agricultural losses
Highly confidential Mars Inc. Mycotoxin Mitigation Risk based sampling for the future Optimising inbound acceptance sampling Biocontrol Post Market Surveillance Raising the bar through global surveillance Building capability in the USA and Asia Predictive Toxicology In vitro model development PBPK model development
Highly confidential, Mars Inc In the field Good agricultural practices Biocontrol Match cultivar with geographic region & climate (humidity / temperature / rainfall) Strain selection (breeding & GMO) Treatments (insects and fungi) During storage Shelling Drying Grading During process & transformation Inbound acceptance sampling Temperature Binders At harvesting Timing of harvest (maturity / moisture) Crop Survey Supplier Quality Assurance Factory Quality Management Process
Use of one living organism to control another by competitive exclusion –Field introduction of large numbers of nontoxigenic spores of same species known to produce target mycotoxin –Competes with naturally occurring toxigenic strains for infection sites on crop –Due to higher numbers swamps toxigenic strains reducing mycotoxin concentration in crop Highly confidential Mars Inc.
Sampling 20 samples from truck 10 first points combined as Group A 10 latter points combined as Group B Sample A&B are individually ground for testing
Highly confidential, Mars Inc Starts by addressing Food Safety with 1 supplier -Establishing a relationship with a customer through clear specification and audit Impacts a supply chain Impacts society Impacts an industry
- climate stress introduces new risks Prevalence of mycotoxin – changes in risk areas Water scarcity Raw materials grown in new regions – how do you assess risk? Extreme weather wipes out crops
Four aflatoxin types (order of toxicity): –B 1 >G 1 > B 2 > G 2 Other aflatoxin types occur as metabolic products (e.g., aflatoxin M 1 in milk) Highly toxic –Aflatoxins are among the most toxic naturally occurring substances known. – Carcinogenic, hepatotoxic, mutagenic and teratogenic –All animal species affected by aflatoxins. – Can be passed through food chain (e.g., milk of animals which are fed contaminated feed). Heat Stable –Withstand typical food processing temperatures Aflatoxin B 1
Highly confidential, Mars Inc Russia Forecast 2012 % change from 2011 2012 A Year of Drought and Floods Hits Supply Drought in Russia and US hits grain quantity and quality US Yield down nearly 30% Quality 23% of the crop is rated as good to excellent down from 66% UK wheat harvest hit by rain impacting Quality only 4% of supplies from top-grade varieties reached top milling standards, compared with 40% last year
Problem –Aspergillus flavus spore numbers in soil in experiments in Thailand have been lower than expected Potential causes –Soil fungi and bacteria may outcompete Aspergillus flavus in very wet soils, as may occur with tropical rainfall, resulting in poor growth of inoculum Highly confidential Mars Inc.
CSIRO process for manufacturing inoculum for use in biocontrol in maize and peanuts is simple, relatively inexpensive and requires only a mixer – Grow Aspergillus flavus spores in the laboratory – Mix the spores with 60% molasses as a carrier –Add mixture to hulled rice at rate of 2% by weight –Broadcast the rice on fields at appropriate rates, 50 – 400 kg/ha, to assess the efficacy of the process Highly confidential Mars Inc.
Goal –Encourage germination of spores on hulled rice at time of manufacture, 1-7 days before spreading Solution –Increase a w of rice substrate during manufacture –a w 0.95-0.96 appeared optimal in promoting germination of Aspergillus flavus spores –Did not result in anticipated difficulties Fungus did not sporulate in enclosed sacks within 7 days Fungus did not clump the rice grains within 7 days Other fungi did not grow Highly confidential Mars Inc.
a.Growth of inoculum on wet soil (1.00 a w ) after 3 days - growth is almost entirely of contaminant fungi b.Growth at 0.90 a w after 3 days - most grains show growth of A. flavus and some sporulation c.Growth at 0.98 a w after 3 days - heavy A. flavus sporulation is evident Highly confidential Mars Inc.