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Black Hole Fueling Image from ESO. Accretion to Supermassive Black Hole a: Ho, Filippenko & Sargent 1997a 10^6Mo 10^8 yr.

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Presentation on theme: "Black Hole Fueling Image from ESO. Accretion to Supermassive Black Hole a: Ho, Filippenko & Sargent 1997a 10^6Mo 10^8 yr."— Presentation transcript:

1 Black Hole Fueling Image from ESO

2 Accretion to Supermassive Black Hole a: Ho, Filippenko & Sargent 1997a 10^6Mo 10^8 yr

3 Angular Momentum Problem Specific angular momentum of matter at r=10kpc to the last stable orbit: 100,000:1 At 200pc, L is still a factor of 1000 too large… What mechanisms drive gas clouds from kpc to subpc?  Gravitational Torque (by Bars)  Dynamical Friction  Viscous Torque

4 Dominant Fueling Mechanism (large to intermediate scale: 10kpc -> 1kpc) Bar exerts torque on gas clouds at large radii (~few kpc) Due to their collisional and dissipative nature, **Clouds lose L gradually and can be driven by the bar potential to few-hundred pc

5 Stars and gas in a barred potential Figures from Buta & Combes 1996 Illustration Credit: Frattare (STScI)

6 Yea! Way to go, our gas cloud Outer ILR Inner ILR

7 What happen to our gas cloud!? Gas-populated orbits change their orientation only gradually due to shocks When clouds reach OILR, the negative torque exert on the cloud cause it to lose significant L Radial inflow slows as gas cross IILR… Gas are trapped in the IILR in a form of ring

8 CO concentration Jogee at al. 2004c Barred (Large scale) Galaxies - High concentration of CO and H alpha at the centers of the starburst galaxies - Relatively low concentration at the center for non-starbursts - See a “ring” of gas surrounding the center of galaxy

9 Jogee at al. 2004c Surface density is derived from the CO (J=1-0) Non-Starbursts: - “Ring” located at the peak of the curve? - Gas surface density increases, stop rising then drop Starbursts: - Gas surface density keep rising A higher resolution is need to probe the gas in the inner 100pc region…

10 Relation btw Large-scale bars and starburst Hunt & Malkan 1999 Statistical Studies of 12um (Seyfert) Galaxies Compared to Extended 12um Sample (E12GS) SB+SAB SAB unbarred Data Bins: S0a and earlier (T≤ 0); Sa, Sab (0< T≤ 2); Sb, Sbc (2< T≤ 4); Sc, Scd (4< T≤ 6); Sd and later (6< T) Overall: Fraction of large-scale bar (SB+SAB) is larger in starbursts (82-85%) than in the normal (61-68%) ones

11 Galaxies with LS-Bar are more likely to harbor AGN Yet, theory suggest LS-Bar can only drive gas to r=100s pc For AGN, there must be some other mechanisms to drive gas from few 100s to sub-pc Thus, we DO NOT expect all barred galaxies to show AGN activity Barred Galaxy = AGN??

12 The journey from few-100s to tens pc If Ωn≠Ωp, bar decoupling happens Secondary/Nuclear Bar (200-1600pc) exerts a negative torque Counterclockwise rotation of the nuclear bar is a possible outcome of Merger! Simulations: decouple phase with Ωn>Ωp can remove L effectively

13 Example of nuclear stellar bar feeding Jogee, Kenney, & Smith 1999

14 More recent example (NUGA) Garcia-Burillo et al. 2005

15 Nuclear Bars = AGN? Theoretically, nuclear bar help to solve the L problem one step further, to few tens pc NOT ALL nuclear bars are expected to be effective in removing L (depends on the pattern speeds) Alternative: SN, Cloud-Cloud collision?

16 Final destination to SMBH At 100pc, L is still 100 times too large to get into subpc scales Dynamical friction becomes important As the gas cloud loses momentum, SMBH dominates the potential Cloud being tidal disrupted, forming a disk around the SMBH Viscous Torque kicks in

17 Jogee et al. 1999 Different time scales for an infalling 1e7 solar-mass cloud DF time scale becomes effective as the gas cloud reaches 100s pc scales

18 Tidal disruption of Giant Cloud => L redistribution BEKKI 2000 N=5000

19 Accreting Mass into MBH MBH is in unit of 10^7 solar mass (same as the mass of cloud) Significant amount of gas fit into a lower angular momentum orbit Few percent of gas in the clump is found to be transferred in to subpc region What else are important for feeding in a sub-pc region? Magnetic Field

20 Baby N-body simulation N = 100 T=0 T=1.5Myr T=2Myr T=1Myr T=2.5MyrT=3Myr

21 Q & A + Thanks

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