4-2 Power and Influence “The true leader must submerge himself in the fountain of the people.” ~V.I. Lenin Chapter 44
4-3 Some Important Distinctions Power has been defined as the capacity to produce effects on others, or the potential to influence others. Power does not need to be exercised in order to have its effect. Power is attributed to others on the basis and frequency of influence tactics they use and on their outcomes. Amount of power followers have in work situations can vary dramatically. –Sometimes, particular followers may exert relatively more influence than the leader does.
4-4 Some Important Distinctions (continued) Influence is defined as the change in a target agent’s attitudes, values, beliefs, or behaviors as the result of influence tactics. Followers can wield power and influence over leaders as well as over each other. Individuals with a relatively large amount of power may successfully employ a wider variety of influence tactics.
4-5 Some Important Distinctions (continued) Influence can be measured by the behaviors or attitudes manifested by followers as a result of a leader’s influence tactics. Leaders can cause fairly substantial changes in subordinates’ attitudes and behaviors. Followers or situational characteristics may diminish or enhance a leader’s potential to influence followers.
4-6 Some Important Distinctions (continued) Influence tactics refer to one person’s actual behaviors designed to change another person’s attitudes, beliefs, values, or behaviors. Followers often can use a wider variety of influence tactics than the leader. –This is because the formal leader is not always the person who possesses the most power in a leadership situation.
4-7 Sources of Leader Power Many situational factors affect power and influence. –Furniture arrangement –Office size and type –Prominently displayed symbols –Appearances of title and authority –Choice of clothing –Presence or absence of crisis
4-8 A Taxonomy of Social Power French and Raven identified five sources/bases of power by which an individual can potentially influence others. –Expert power –Referent power –Legitimate power –Reward power –Coercive power
4-9 Sources of Leader Power in the Leader- Follower-Situation Framework
4-10 Expert Power Expert power is the power of knowledge. Some people are able to influence others with their relative expertise in particular areas. Expert power is a function of the amount of knowledge one possesses relative to other group members, so followers may have more expert power than leaders at times. If different followers have considerably greater amounts of expert power, the leader may be unable to influence them using expert power alone.
4-11 Referent Power Referent power refers to the potential influence one has due to the strength of the relationship between the leader and the followers. Referent power often takes time to develop but can be lost quickly. The stronger the relationship, the more influence leaders and followers exert over each other. Followers with relatively more referent power than their peers are often spokespersons for their units and have more latitude to deviate from work-unit norms.
4-12 Legitimate Power Legitimate power depends on a person’s organizational role i.e. formal/official authority. Legitimate power allows exertion of influence through requests or demands deemed appropriate by virtue of role and position. Holding a position and being a leader are not synonymous. –Effective leaders often intuitively realize they need more than legitimate power to be successful. Followers can use their legitimate power (job descriptions, bureaucratic rules, union policies) to influence leaders.
4-13 Reward Power Reward power involves the potential to influence others through control over desired resources. The potential to influence others through reward power is a joint function of the leader, the followers, and the situation. Overemphasizing performance rewards can lead to workers feeling resentful and manipulated. Extrinsic rewards (praise, compensation) may not have the same behavioral effects as intrinsic rewards (personal growth, development).
4-14 Reward Power (continued) Leaders can enhance their ability to influence others based on reward power by: –Determining what rewards are available and most valued by subordinates –Establishing policies for the fair and consistent administration of rewards for good performance Followers can exercise reward power over leaders by: –Controlling scarce resources –Modifying their level of effort based on the leader’s performance
4-15 Coercive Power Coercive power is the potential to influence others through the administration of negative sanctions or the removal of positive events. Reliance on this power has inherent limitations. One of the most common forms of coercion is a superior’s temperamental outbursts. Followers that use coercive power to influence a leader’s behavior tend to have a relatively high amount of referent power among co- workers.
4-16 Concluding Thoughts about French and Raven’s Power Taxonomy Leaders can usually exert more power during a crisis than during periods of relative calm. –During a crisis, followers may be more eager to receive direction and control from leaders. Research indicates that reliance on referent and expert power led to employees who: –Were more motivated –Were more satisfied –Were absent less –Performed better
4-17 Concluding Thoughts about French and Raven’s Power Taxonomy (cont.) Four generalizations can be made about power and influence: 1.Effective leaders typically take advantage of all their sources of power. 2.Leaders in well-functioning organizations are open to being influenced by their subordinates. 3.Leaders vary in the extent to which they share power with subordinates. 4.Effective leaders generally work to increase their various power bases or become more willing to use their coercive power.
4-18 Leader Motives People vary in their motivation to influence or control others. This need for power is expressed in two ways. –Personalized power is exercised for personal needs by selfish, impulsive individuals. –Socialized power is used for the benefit of others or the organization and may involve self-sacrifice. Thematic Apperception Tests, a projective personality test, can assess the need for power.
4-19 Leader Motives (continued) Need for power is found to be positively related to various leadership effectiveness criteria. –Leaders who are relatively uninhibited in their need for power will use power impulsively. –Leaders with a high need for power but low activity inhibition may be successful in the short term but create hazards for the long-term. –Some followers have a high need for power too, which can lead to tension between leader and follower.
4-20 Leader Motives (continued) Individuals vary in their motivation to manage in terms of six composites: 1.Maintaining good relationships with authority figures 2.Wanting to compete for recognition and advancement 3.Being active and assertive 4.Wanting to exercise influence over subordinates 5.Being visibly different from followers 6.Being willing to do routine administrative tasks
4-21 Leader Motives (continued) Miner’s Sentence Completion Scale (MSCS) consistently predicts leadership success in hierarchical or bureaucratic organizations, and its findings offer several implications: –Not all individuals like being leaders. –A high need for power or motivation to manage does not guarantee leadership success. –A high need for socialized power and a high level of activity inhibition may be required for long-term leadership success. –Followers and leaders differ in the need for power, activity inhibition, and motivation to manage.
4-22 Influence Tactics The Influence Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ) assesses nine types of influence tactics: 1.Rational persuasion 2.Inspirational appeals 3.Consultation 4.Ingratiation 5.Personal appeals 6.Exchange 7.Coalition tactics 8.Pressure tactics 9.Legitimizing tactics
4-23 Influence Tactics and Power A strong relationship exists between relative power and the types of influence tactics used. Hard tactics are typically used when: –An influencer has the upper hand –Resistance is anticipated –When a person’s behavior violates important norms Soft tactics are typically used when: –They are at a disadvantage or expect resistance –They will personally benefit if the attempt is successful
4-24 Influence Tactics and Power (continued) Rational tactics are typically used when: –Parties are relatively equal in power –Resistance is not anticipated –Benefits are organizational as well as personal Leaders with high referent power generally do not use legitimizing or pressure tactics. Leaders with only coercive or legitimate power tend to use coalition, legitimizing, or pressure tactics. Using influence tactics is a social skill.
4-25 A Concluding Thought about Influence Tactics Leaders benefit from being conscious of the type of influence tactic to use and its effects. Leaders should consider why they believe particular influence tactics are effective. Influence efforts intended to build others up more frequently lead to positive outcomes than influence efforts intended to put others down.
4-26 Summary By reflecting on their different bases of power, leaders may better understand how they can affect followers and even expand their power. Leaders can improve their effectiveness by enhancing their idiosyncratic credit. Leaders should discourage in-group and out- group rivalries from forming in the work unit. The exercise of power occurs primarily through the influence tactics leaders and followers use. Leadership practitioners should always consider why they are using a particular influence attempt before they actually use it.