2 Topic 1 - Levers and Inclined Planes A simple machine that changes the amount of force you need to move an objectParts of a leverFulcrum – The fixed point that is the lever’s point of rotationEffort Force – The force you exert on a lever to make it moveLoad – The mass of an object moved or lifted by the lever
3 Three Classes of Levers Class 1 Lever – The fulcrum is between the effort and the loadClass 2 Lever – The load is between the effort and the fulcrumClass 3 Lever – The effort is between the fulcrum and the load
4 Examples of LeversClass 1 Levers – A see – saw, hammer, scissors, pliers, trolley, crowbarClass 2 Levers – Bottle opener, stapler, wheelbarrow, nail clippers, nutcrackerClass 3 Levers – Fishing rod, tweezers, tongs, hockey stickWhat is WorkWhen you exert force on an object to move it in the direction of the force, you are doing work.Work = Force x DistanceForce is measured in Newtons (1 Newton = approximately 100 grams)Work is measured in JoulesExample: You exerted a force of 3.5 N on a box and moved it 2 metresW= 3.5 x 2 = 7 Joules
5 Inclined PlanesAn inclined plane is a ramp or a slope that reduces the force you need to lift something.Inclined planes and levers reduce the work you do to move an object.What is Mechanical AdvantageThe comparison of the size of the load to the size of the effort force. So the smaller the effort force compared to the load, the greater the mechanical advantage is.If you use a machine that requires less effort to move the load, then the greater mechanical advantage the machine has.The mechanical advantage tells you how many times easier the simple machine made it to move the object
6 Calculating Mechanical Advantage Mechanical Advantage = Load Force/Effort Force Or Length of effort Arm / Length of load Arm Example: 5 Newtons 50 Newtons Mechanical Advantage = Newtons Mechanical Advantage = 3.3 SO...WHICH LEVER MAKES THE JOB EASIER?
7 Topic 2 – The Wheel and Axle, Gears and Pulleys The Wheel and Axle Wheels and Axles are also simple machines that provide a mechanical advantage. Examples:
8 GearsA simple machine that consists of a wheel with teeth that is used to reduce work.PulleysA simple machine consisting of a grooved wheel with a rope or chain running through the groove. These are used to make work more convenient and even reduce work.Pulleys can be fixed or movableComplex pulley systems are used to move very heavy loads
9 Pulleys and Mechanical Advantage Fixed Pulleys – A fixed pulley does not rise or fall with the load. An example would be the pulley on top of a flag pole.A fixed pulley changes the direction of force but does not create a mechanical advantage. Only you are supporting the weight.Moveable Pulleys – These rise and fall with the load.A moveable pulley does not change the direction of force, but it does have a mechanical advantage. It creates a mechanical advantage because now the weight is being supported where the rope is attached and by you (supported in two areas). The mechanical advantage is = to the number of ends of the rope supporting the weight.So the moveable pulley would have a mechanical advantage of 2.
10 # of follower gear teeth Speed Ratio = Distanceinput÷ DistanceoutputThe more teeth a gear has, the slower it turns in a speed train. Smaller gears with fewer teeth move faster.Speed ratio is the relationship between the speed of the driver gear and a follower gear.Speed ratio = # of driver gear teeth# of follower gear teeth
11 Here is a pulley design with a mechanical advantage of two Here is a pulley design with a mechanical advantage of three
12 Topic 3 – Energy, Friction and Efficiency Stored EnergyEnergy must be transferred to a machine to make it work, however, we need to store energy to make the machine work only when we want it.Stored energy is called potential energy.Much of the energy for machines as well as our bodies is stored as chemical energy.No Machine is 100% EfficientNo machine is perfectly efficient, some energy is always lost .The more efficient a machine is, the more energy is transferred to the load.
13 Boosting EfficiencySome effort put into any machine must overcome friction.Friction reduces the efficiency of a machine.We can boost efficiency by reducing friction. We can reduce friction by using lubricants.Useful FrictionOften we need friction to make a machine work properly.Some examples of this are:We need some friction on our vehicle tires to make them grip and moveBaseball players add powder to their hands to increase friction and improve gripRunning shoes need friction to provide grip so you don’t slip
14 Topic 4 – Force, Pressure and Area Force acting over a certain area is called pressure. When you change the area and keep the force constant, the pressure changes.Calculating PressurePressure = Force / AreaForce is measured in Newtons and area in square meters Pressure is measured in Newtons/m2.Example – If there is a force of 10N spread over 10 square meters. The pressure would equal 1 Newton/m2. If the same force was spread over 1 square meter then the pressure would be 10 Newtons/m2. The second would have greater pressure.Pressure increases when there is more force over less area. If you kept the force the same and increased the area over which the force was applied, the pressure would decrease.
15 An example of this is the man laying on a bed of nails: If he has a force of 800 Newtons laying on 4 square meters, the pressure pushing on his back is 200 Newtons/m2.If he stood on his feet and put his 800 Newtons on .5 square meters, the pressure pushing on his feet would be 1600 Newtons/m2...much more pressure.
16 Pascal’s Law This law states that pressure exerted on a contained fluid is transmitted undiminished in all directions throughout the fluid and perpendicular to the walls of the container. Mechanical systems use this law. An example would be in using hydraulic lifts. Pressure is applied to a hydraulic arm, and this pressure is used to cause the lift to do work.