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The Number of Youth Who Age Out of Foster Care Continues to Rise THE NUMBER OF YOUTH AGING OUT OF FOSTER CARE HAS INCREASED EVERY YEAR SINCE 2001 THE.

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Presentation on theme: "The Number of Youth Who Age Out of Foster Care Continues to Rise THE NUMBER OF YOUTH AGING OUT OF FOSTER CARE HAS INCREASED EVERY YEAR SINCE 2001 THE."— Presentation transcript:

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2 The Number of Youth Who Age Out of Foster Care Continues to Rise THE NUMBER OF YOUTH AGING OUT OF FOSTER CARE HAS INCREASED EVERY YEAR SINCE 2001 THE TOTAL NUMBER IN FOSTER CARE HAS DECREASED EVERY YEAR SINCE 1999 Source: Kids are Waiting and the Jim Casey Youth Opportunities Initiative (2007); Time for Reform: Aging Out and On Their Own. Philadelphia, PA: Pew Charitable Trust

3 Fostering Connections The Fostering Connections Act allows states to extend foster care to year-olds; a system for older youth who would stay in care voluntarily is the next wave of innovation. ► What does a child welfare/foster care system look like for young people who can walk away? ► How do we keep young people connected to supports and services after age 18? ► What will be the response of the judiciary to a system for young adults years old? The Fostering Connections Act requires states to implement youth-directed transition planning 90 days prior to emancipation.

4 Vision for the Next Decade: An Effective Service System Blending of positive youth development, permanence and interdependent living services Strength and needs assessments that focus on enduring relationships and successful transitions to adulthood Full engagement of young people in their own planning Developmentally appropriate services and supports Family centered and culturally competent casework Community based support systems Staff and supportData collection and analysis Chafee Plus Ten: A Vision for the Next Decade, Madelyn Freundlich, Jim Casey Youth Opportunities Initiative, April 2010

5 Initiative Site Logic Model Strategies and Activities A set of strategies and activities will help create the conditions that are necessary in a community in order to improve outcomes for young people transitioning from foster care: Youth Engagement Partnership and Resources Research, Evaluation, and Communications Public Will and Policy Increased Opportunities How do we know the strategies and activities are being implemented? A Core Strategies Rubric is used to assess sites’ implementation according to a set of cross-site performance measures. Improved Policy and PracticeImproved Youth Outcomes Improved policy and practice will promote timely permanence and increase opportunities available to young people, regardless of race or ethnicity: A Permanent Family A Stable Education Opportunities to Achieve Economic Success A Place to Live Access to Health and Mental Health Care Opportunities to Be Listened To, Informed, and Respected and to Exert Control Over Their Lives When systems are effectively supporting young people throughout their transition, they will have improved outcomes in the following areas: Permanence Education Employment Housing Physical and Mental Health Personal and Community Engagement How do we track improvements in policy and practice? A Policy Matrix is used to assess sites’ improvement according to a set of cross-site goals; communities can set additional priorities. The matrix summarizes relevant state policies and practices and provides a set of indicators to help the state determine how many young people are benefiting. How do we track improvement in youth outcomes? A series of indicators related to each outcome area is used to measure progress over time. The data are collected directly from young people twice a year via the Opportunity Passport™ Participant Survey.

6 Initiative Sites Theory of Change in Action Connecticut Georgia Iowa Maine Michigan Rhode Island San Diego, California Tennessee Indianapolis, Indiana (a partnership with the Department of Child Services, the Richard M Fairbanks Foundation, the Lumina Foundation, and the Indianapolis Private Industry Council) Omaha, Nebraska (a partnership with the Sherwood Foundation, the William and Ruth Scott Family Foundation, and the Department of Health & Human Services) Tampa, Florida (a partnership with the Eckerd Family Foundation ) Hawaii (a partnership with the Geist Foundation, the Hawaii Community Foundation, and the Department of Human Services)

7 Initiative Site Logic Model Strategies and Activities A set of strategies and activities will help create the conditions that are necessary in a community in order to improve outcomes for young people transitioning from foster care: Youth Engagement Partnership and Resources Research, Evaluation, and Communications Public Will and Policy Increased Opportunities How do we know the strategies and activities are being implemented? A Core Strategies Rubric is used to assess sites’ implementation according to a set of cross-site performance measures. Improved Policy and Practice Improved Youth Outcomes Improved policy and practice will promote timely permanence and increase opportunities available to young people, regardless of race or ethnicity: A Permanent Family A Stable Education Opportunities to Achieve Economic Success A Place to Live Access to Health and Mental Health Care Opportunities to Be Listened To, Informed, and Respected and to Exert Control Over Their Lives When systems are effectively supporting young people throughout their transition, they will have improved outcomes in the following areas: Permanence Education Employment Housing Physical and Mental Health Personal and Community Engagement How do we track improvements in policy and practice? A Policy Matrix is used to assess sites’ improvement according to a set of cross-site goals; communities can set additional priorities. The matrix summarizes relevant state policies and practices and provides a set of indicators to help the state determine how many young people are benefiting. How do we track improvement in youth outcomes? A series of indicators related to each outcome area is used to measure progress over time. The data are collected directly from young people twice a year via the Opportunity Passport™ Participant Survey.

8 Jim Casey Policy Agenda Young people, engaged through youth leadership boards, have built advocacy agendas for their states. The Initiative agenda is a reflection of these advocacy agendas. It is shaped by our understanding of the transition needs of young people, informed by data and our partnerships with young people, communities, and public agencies. The central concept is that “the finish line isn’t 18 anymore.” Society’s responsibility to young people leaving foster care does not end on their 18th birthday.

9 All young people need…. A Permanent Family mandate that all young people leave foster care to their family, legal guardian, adoptive parent, or are discharged to a permanently committed, caring adult provide subsidized legal guardianship and subsidized kinship care as options for permanence ensure that young people are placed with families in their own neighborhoods and communities, thereby reducing reliance on congregate care provide older youth with options for re-engaging birth parents or relatives who are safe resources make all efforts to place siblings together; when not possible require and facilitate quality visitation among siblings unless safety is an issue*

10 All young people need… A Stable Education ensure that young people remain in the school that they are enrolled in at time of removal and placement changes; if a school change is in their best interest, provide immediate enrollment in, and records transfer to, a new school* make tuition waivers to public or private schools available to young people formerly in foster care up to the age of 24 provide other supports for post-secondary education (e.g., books, computers, school supplies, tuition payment, Education Training Vouchers, housing)

11 All young people need… Opportunities to Achieve Economic Success make Individual Development Accounts (IDAs) available to all youth currently or formerly in care age 14-24, with developmentally appropriate financial literacy training and asset purchases such as vehicles and security deposits on housing mandate that all youth leaving care, age 14 up to 21, receive necessary documents upon exiting including, at a minimum, their Social Security card, a certified birth certificate or green card, and a government-issued photo ID. provide early and consistent work experience with priority access to workforce programs, developmentally appropriate training and ongoing support

12 All young people need… A Place to Live allow young people to remain in care up to age 21* with continued legal advocacy and permanency planning provide a variety of living arrangements as options for young people age 18-21, including remaining with foster parents, kinship/guardianship placements, and independent living, and allow young people to return to foster care or a supervised living setting at any time up to age 21 provide priority access to safe, affordable housing options

13 All young people need… Access to Health and Mental Health Care extend Medicaid to young people, ages 18 up to 21, who aged out of foster care with automatic enrollment and re-enrollment in Medicaid on an annual basis ensure coordination of Medicaid beyond age 21 for those meeting adult requirements ensure that health care services for young people are comprehensive and coordinated upon entering foster care and throughout the period of care*, and that plans are in place to continue health care after exiting foster care

14 All young people need… Opportunities to Be Listened to, Informed, Respected, and to Exert Control over Their Lives require that young people lead the development of their case planning, including permanency planning and transition planning that addresses education and employment goals, and is finalized during the 90-day period immediately prior to leaving care* provide young people opportunities for leadership and community involvement, including opportunities for advising systems partners on policy and practice implement NYTD+ to find out from young people how they are doing after leaving foster care so that policy and practice can be improved collect and analyze outcome and administrative data to identify racial disproportionality and act to assure that services provided are racially and ethnically equitable; free of bias and are provided by culturally competent staff

15 Policy and Practice Improvements in Initiative States Medicaid expanded to age 21 in states: Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Iowa, and Michigan Tuition waivers and expanded supports : Florida, Iowa, and Maine Court improvements: Florida, Georgia, Iowa, Maine, and Rhode Island Permanency efforts imbedded in legislation and policy: Connecticut, Iowa, Maine, Michigan, and Rhode Island Sibling rights visitation: Iowa and Maine POLICY INFLUENCE SYSTEMS IMPROVEMENT Advocacy and influence generated by young people, community partnerships and data

16 Initiative Site Logic Model Strategies and Activities A set of strategies and activities will help create the conditions that are necessary in a community in order to improve outcomes for young people transitioning from foster care: Youth Engagement Partnership and Resources Research, Evaluation, and Communications Public Will and Policy Increased Opportunities How do we know the strategies and activities are being implemented? A Core Strategies Rubric is used to assess sites’ implementation according to a set of cross-site performance measures. Improved Policy and PracticeImproved Youth Outcomes Improved policy and practice will promote timely permanence and increase opportunities available to young people, regardless of race or ethnicity: A Permanent Family A Stable Education Opportunities to Achieve Economic Success A Place to Live Access to Health and Mental Health Care Opportunities to Be Listened To, Informed, and Respected and to Exert Control Over Their Lives When systems are effectively supporting young people throughout their transition, they will have improved outcomes in the following areas: Permanence Education Employment Housing Physical and Mental Health Personal and Community Engagement How do we track improvements in policy and practice? A Policy Matrix is used to assess sites’ improvement according to a set of cross-site goals; communities can set additional priorities. The matrix summarizes relevant state policies and practices and provides a set of indicators to help the state determine how many young people are benefiting. How do we track improvement in youth outcomes? A series of indicators related to each outcome area is used to measure progress over time. The data are collected directly from young people twice a year via the Opportunity Passport™ Participant Survey.

17 Trends in Outcome Data Among other findings, we see: Decreases in reports of health insurance from young people that are out of care. With little change over time, just over half of young people out of care reporting safe, stable and affordable housing. Increases over time in percent of young people not in school and working full time for six months or more. However it is still little more than half of the young people working full time for six months or more at their most recent administration. Increases over time in those young people, that are not in school, with a high school diploma or GED.

18  In the outcome areas of health care, housing, and personal and community engagement, we continue to see clear differences between young people that self report having a permanent relationship and those that do not.  For the outcome areas of education and employment, the differences between these two subgroups have not been consistent. (Data not shown.) Future surveys will illuminate trends more clearly. Opportunity Passport TM Participant Survey Data through October 31, 2008; permanence status based on most recent administration. Recent Data Continue to Demonstrate Importance of Permanent Connections % Participants out of care with health insurance Health: Young People with Permanence are More Likely to Have Health Insurance and Retain it Over Time % Participants out of care with safe, stable, and affordable housing Housing: Young People with Permanence are More Likely to Have Safe, Stable, and Affordable Housing % Participants with enough people to rely on Personal/Community Engagement: Young People without Permanence Have Fewer People to Rely on Over Time

19 Young people with family permanence are more likely to report having better outcomes in the areas of health insurance, housing, and personal and community engagement. ▫ Family Permanence - those young people that report a family member (birth parent, adoptive parent, legal guardian, spouse, adult sibling or an extended family member such as a grandparent, aunt or uncle) as their permanent connection; ▫ Non-Family Permanence - those that report a non-family member as their permanent connection; and ▫ Without Permanence - those that report no permanence. % Participants Out of Care with Health Insurance by Permanency Status Analyses of recent permanency data show early trends

20 Permanency Paradox: Stepping Stones or Slippery Slope A broader permanency construct may be appropriate for older youth There are qualitative differences in types of permanency reported by young people in our sites, and as reported by Gina Samuels, A Reason, a Season, or a Lifetime. Older youth view permanence as a continuum rather than a bright line achievement. The concept of a continuum of permanence carries opportunities and risks May provide benchmarks of permanence as stepping stones to quality permanence (compatible with the extended finish line in Fostering Connections). Ignoring the gradations invites a slope of sloppy practice that settles for low quality permanence.

21 Initiative Site Logic Model Strategies and Activities A set of strategies and activities will help create the conditions that are necessary in a community in order to improve outcomes for young people transitioning from foster care: Youth Engagement Partnership and Resources Research, Evaluation, and Communications Public Will and Policy How do we know the strategies and activities are being implemented? A Core Strategies Rubric is used to assess sites’ implementation according to a set of cross-site performance measures. Improved Policy and PracticeImproved Youth Outcomes Improved policy and practice will promote timely permanence and increase opportunities available to young people, regardless of race or ethnicity: A Permanent Family A Stable Education Opportunities to Achieve Economic Success A Place to Live Access to Health and Mental Health Care Opportunities to Be Listened To, Informed, and Respected and to Exert Control Over Their Lives When systems are effectively supporting young people throughout their transition, they will have improved outcomes in the following areas: Permanence Education Employment Housing Physical and Mental Health Personal and Community Engagement How do we track improvements in policy and practice? A Policy Matrix is used to assess sites’ improvement according to a set of cross-site goals; communities can set additional priorities. The matrix summarizes relevant state policies and practices and provides a set of indicators to help the state determine how many young people are benefiting. How do we track improvement in youth outcomes? A series of indicators related to each outcome area is used to measure progress over time. The data are collected directly from young people twice a year via the Opportunity Passport™ Participant Survey. Increased Opportunities

22 Increased Opportunities for Economic Success Opportunity Passport™ An activity of the Increased Opportunities strategy. Has three distinct components: - Financial Literacy - Matched Savings Account (IDA) 1:1 - Personal Bank Account Participants must first complete financial literacy curriculum. Participants may withdraw their money at any time, but savings is matched only for approved asset purchases. Participant eligibility: years old, and placed in the public child welfare foster care system at or after the age of 14. Door Openers Engaging Young People as Decision Makers e.g., grant funds, Door Openers, local rules for Opportunity Passport™

23 Opportunity Passport™ Participants Match Well Against the American Dream Demonstration (ADD)  Young people are saving and buying assets at rates comparable to the American Dream Demonstration, the forerunner of IDAs in the United States.  Participants are achieving this despite being an average age of 18, compared to the average age of 36 for ADD participants. “The Opportunity Passport: Building Assets for Youth Aging Out of Foster Care,” Jim Casey Youth Opportunities Initiative, June Asset data through December 31, Young People are Utilizing IDA

24 Opportunity Passport™ Asset Purchases We believe that a developmentally appropriate IDA is key to success:  Youth in transition from intact families often receive help with college expenses, help with purchasing a car -- which facilitates going to school and work -- and help with a first apartment.  Opportunity Passport™ participants are purchasing these same assets -- vehicles, housing and education. This suggests that the IDA is being utilized in a developmentally appropriate way that facilitates a natural path toward economic success.  In the process, the young people are getting connected to mainstream banking and learning savings behaviors. Developmentally Appropriate IDA is Key to Success “The Opportunity Passport: Building Assets for Youth Aging Out of Foster Care,” Jim Casey Youth Opportunities Initiative, June Asset data through December 31, 2008.

25 Even the young people with additional challenges can save and buy assets…  Young people who report additional challenges, such as being a young parent, experiencing homelessness, or having no permanent adult connection, actually utilize the IDA proportionally more than others.  We suspect that a higher level of need -- even survival -- is leading to a higher rate of utilization. Young people facing additional challenges “The Opportunity Passport: Building Assets for Youth Aging Out of Foster Care,” Jim Casey Youth Opportunities Initiative, June Based on young people who took at least two surveys through October 31, 2008; permanent connection, homeless or parent status based on response at most recent administration. % Participants who purchased at least one asset

26 Early Links Between Asset Purchase and Outcome Areas of Housing and Employment  Asset purchasers are more likely to self-report being employed and having safe, stable and affordable housing, and they experience greater rates of improvement over time.  These are very early trends, and we will see if they hold as the longitudinal data become more robust. However, the trends are also not surprising.  A car -- the most purchased asset -- has potential to impact both employment and housing opportunities quickly by providing a broader geographic area within which a young person can find appropriate employment or housing, while also providing reliable transportation to and from their job.  A match for an apartment deposit can obviously directly impact having safe, stable and affordable housing very quickly.  The IDA rewards steady employment and savings behavior. Does it matter whether the IDA motivates a young person to obtain employment in order to save for an asset, or that the young person is able to save for an asset because they were previously employed? “The Opportunity Passport: Building Assets for Youth Aging Out of Foster Care,” Jim Casey Youth Opportunities Initiative, June 2009.

27 There are still many challenges… Yet we are moving in the right direction, in partnership with young people, systems and communities. We have learned much over the past decade. We must continue to learn and to work to improve outcomes for young people transitioning from care We must keep the momentum going, so that we “turn the curve” in the next decade.

28 Hopeful Solutions from the States Kate Hanley, Michigan, Post-secondary education Marty Zanghi, Maine, Employment Diane Zambito, Florida, Courts Mary Nelson, Iowa, After Care Supports Jeremy Long, Jim Casey Youth Leadership Intern, Youth Engagement Danielle Brunetta, former Opportunity Passport™ participant, Savings and Assets


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