Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Preview Section 1 Fluids and Pressure"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 7 Preview Section 1 Fluids and Pressure Forces in FluidsPreviewSection 1 Fluids and PressureSection 2 Buoyant ForceSection 3 Fluids and MotionConcept Mapping
2Chapter 7 Bellringer Imagine the following situation: Section 1 Fluids and PressureBellringerImagine the following situation:One afternoon, you go outside to find your younger sister standing by her bike with a nail in her hand. The bike has a flat tire. She wants to know why the air came out of the tire when she pulled the nail out.Write a few sentences in you science journal to explain why air rushes out of a hole in a tire.
3Chapter 7 Objectives Describe how fluids exert pressure. Section 1 Fluids and PressureObjectivesDescribe how fluids exert pressure.Analyze how atmospheric pressure varies with depth.Explain how depth and density affect water pressure.Give examples of fluids flowing from high to low pressure.
4Chapter 7 Fluids Exert Pressure Section 1 Fluids and PressureFluids Exert PressureA fluid is any material that can flow and that takes the shape of its container. Fluids include liquids and gases.All fluids exert pressure, which is the amount of force exerted per unit area of a surface.
5Fluids Exert Pressure, continued Chapter 7Section 1 Fluids and PressureFluids Exert Pressure, continuedIn the image below, the force of the air particles hitting the inner surface of the tire creates pressure, which keeps the tire inflated.
6Chapter 7 Pressure Section 1 Fluids and Pressure Click below to watch the Visual Concept.Visual Concept
7Fluids Exert Pressure, continued Chapter 7Section 1 Fluids and PressureFluids Exert Pressure, continuedCalculating Pressure Pressure can be calculated by using the following equation:pressure=forceareaThe SI unit for pressure is the pascal. One pascal (1 Pa) is the force of one newton exerted over an area of one square meter (1 N/m2).
8Pressure, Force, and Area Chapter 7Section 1 Fluids and PressurePressure, Force, and Area
9Fluids Exert Pressure, continued Chapter 7Section 1 Fluids and PressureFluids Exert Pressure, continuedPressure and Bubbles Soap bubbles get rounder as they get bigger because fluids exert pressure evenly in all directions.Since air is a fluid, adding air to an air bubble causes it to expand in all directions at once.
10Chapter 7 Atmospheric Pressure Section 1 Fluids and PressureAtmospheric PressureThe atmosphere is the thin layer of nitrogen, oxygen, and other gases that surrounds Earth.Atmospheric pressure is the pressure caused by the weight of the atmosphere.Atmospheric pressure is exerted on everything on Earth, including you.
11Atmospheric Pressure, continued Chapter 7Section 1 Fluids and PressureAtmospheric Pressure, continuedThe air inside this balloon exerts pressure that keeps the balloon inflated against atmospheric pressure.
12Atmospheric Pressure, continued Chapter 7Section 1 Fluids and PressureAtmospheric Pressure, continuedVariation of Atmospheric Pressure The atmosphere stretches about 150 km above the Earth’s surface, but about 80% of the atmosphere’s gases are found within 10 km. At the top of the atmosphere, pressure is almost nonexistent.Atmospheric Pressure and Depth As you travel through the atmosphere, atmospheric pressure changes. The further down through the atmosphere you go, the greater the pressure is.
13Atmospheric Pressure, continued Chapter 7Section 1 Fluids and PressureAtmospheric Pressure, continuedPressure Changes and Your Body If you travel to higher or lower points in the atmosphere, the fluids in your body have to adjust to maintain equal pressure.You may have experienced this adjustment is your ears have “popped” when you were in a plane taking off or in a car traveling down a steep mountain road.
14Chapter 7 Water Pressure Section 1 Fluids and PressureWater PressureWater is a fluid. So, it exerts pressure like the atmosphere does.Water Pressure and Depth Like atmospheric pressure, water pressure depends on depth.Density Makes a Difference Because water is more dense than air, a certain volume of water has more mass—and weighs more—than the same volume of air. Water exerts more pressure than air.
15Pressure Differences and Fluid Flow Chapter 7Section 1 Fluids and PressurePressure Differences and Fluid FlowJust by drinking through a straw you can observe an important property of fluids: Fluids flow from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure.Pressure Difference and Breathing The next slide shows how exhaling causes fluids to flow from high to low pressure.
17Pressure Differences and Fluid Flow, continued Chapter 7Section 1 Fluids and PressurePressure Differences and Fluid Flow, continuedPressure Differences and Tornadoes The air pressure inside a tornado is very low. Because the air pressure outside of the tornado is higher than the pressure inside, air rushes into the tornado.The rushing air causes the tornado to be like a giant vacuum cleaner.
18Chapter 7Section 2 Buoyant ForceBellringerIdentify which of the following objects will float in water: a rock, an orange, a screw, a quarter, a candle, a plastic-foam “peanut,” and a chalkboard eraser.Write a hypothesis in your science journal about why an aircraft carrier, which weighs thousands of tons, does not sink.
19Chapter 7Section 2 Buoyant ForceObjectivesExplain the relationship between fluid pressure and buoyant force.Predict whether an object will float or sink in a fluid.Analyze the role of density in an object’s ability to float.Explain how the overall density of an object can be changed.
20Buoyant Force and Fluid Pressure Chapter 7Section 2 Buoyant ForceBuoyant Force and Fluid PressureBuoyant force is the upward force that keeps an object immersed in or floating on a liquid.Determining Buoyant Force Archimedes’ principle states that the buoyant force on an object is an upward force equal to the weight of the fluid that the object takes the place of, or displaces.
21Buoyant Force and Fluid Pressure, continued Chapter 7Section 2 Buoyant ForceBuoyant Force and Fluid Pressure, continuedThere is more pressure at the bottom of an object because pressure increases with depth. This results in an upward buoyant force on the object.
22Weight Versus Buoyant Force Chapter 7Section 2 Buoyant ForceWeight Versus Buoyant ForceSinking An object in a fluid will sink if its weight is greater than the buoyant force.Floating An object will float only when the buoyant force on the object is equal to the object’s weight.Buoying Up When the buoyant force on an object is greater than the object’s weight, the object is buoyed up (pushed up) in water.
23Weight Versus Buoyant Force, continued Chapter 7Section 2 Buoyant ForceWeight Versus Buoyant Force, continuedWill an object sink or float? That depends on the whether the buoyant force is less than or equal to the object’s weight.
24Buoyant Force on Floating Objects Chapter 7Section 2 Buoyant ForceBuoyant Force on Floating ObjectsClick below to watch the Visual Concept.Visual Concept
25Floating, Sinking, and Density Chapter 7Section 2 Buoyant ForceFloating, Sinking, and DensityMore Dense Than Air Ice floats on water because it is less dense than water. Ice, like most substances, is more dense than air. So, ice does not float in air.Less Dense Than Air One substance that is less dense than air is helium gas. A given volume of helium displaces an equal volume of air that is much heavier than itself. So, helium floats in air.
27Changing Overall Density Chapter 7Section 2 Buoyant ForceChanging Overall DensityChanging Shape The secret of how a ship floats is in the shape of the ship. Ships made of steel float because their overall density is less than the density of water.The next slide demonstrates how a ship made out of steel, which is almost 8 times denser than water, is able to float in water.
29Changing Overall Density, continued Chapter 7Section 2 Buoyant ForceChanging Overall Density, continuedChanging Mass A submarine is a special kind of ship that can travel both on the surface of the water and underwater.Submarines have ballast tanks that can be opened to allow sea water to flow in.As water is added, the submarine’s mass increases, but its volume stays the same.
31Changing Overall Density, continued Chapter 7Section 2 Buoyant ForceChanging Overall Density, continuedChanging Volume Like a submarine, some fish adjust their overall density to stay at a certain depth in the water.Most bony fishes have an organ called a swim bladder which helps them change volume.
32Chapter 7 Swim Bladder Section 2 Buoyant Force Click below to watch the Visual Concept.Visual Concept
33Chapter 7Section 3 Fluids and MotionBellringerYou have been asked to design two kites. One kite will be flown in areas where there is almost always a good breeze. The other kite will be flown in areas with very little wind. What differences in design and materials are there between your two kites?Record your designs in your science journal.
34Chapter 7Section 3 Fluids and MotionObjectivesDescribe the relationship between pressure and fluid speed.Analyze the roles of lift, thrust, and wing size in flight.Explain Pascal’s principle.Describe drag, and explain how it affects lift.
35Fluid Speed and Pressure Chapter 7Section 3 Fluids and MotionFluid Speed and PressureBernoulli’s principle states that as the speed of a moving fluid increases, the fluid’s pressure decreases.Science in a Sink A table-tennis ball is attached to a string and swung into a stream of water, where it is held. Because the water is moving faster than air, the ball is pushed by the higher pressure of the air into an area of reduced pressure—the water stream.
36Factors That Affect Flight Chapter 7Section 3 Fluids and MotionFactors That Affect FlightThrust and Lift Thrust is the forward force produced by a plane’s engine. Lift is the upward force on the wing as it moves through the air.Wing Size, Speed, and Lift Smaller wings keep a plane’s weight low, which also helps it move faster.Bernoulli and Birds A small bird must flap its small wings at a fast pace to stay in the air, but a large bird flaps less.
38Factors That Affect Flight, continued Chapter 7Section 3 Fluids and MotionFactors That Affect Flight, continuedBernoulli and Baseball The next slide shows how a baseball pitcher can take advantage of Bernoulli’s principle to throw a curveball.
40Drag and Motion in Fluids Chapter 7Section 3 Fluids and MotionDrag and Motion in FluidsDrag is the force that opposes or restricts motion in a fluid. It is a force that is parallel to the velocity of the flow.Drag is usually caused by an irregular flow of air, known as turbulence.Turbulence and Lift Lift is often reduced when turbulence causes drag.
41Chapter 7 Pascal’s Principle Section 3 Fluids and MotionPascal’s PrincipleWhat Is Pascal’s Principle? Pascal’s principle states that a change in pressure at any point in an enclosed fluid will be transmitted equally to all parts of that fluid.Pascal’s Principle and Motion Hydraulic devices use Pascal’s principle to move or lift objects. Liquids are used in hydraulic devices because liquids cannot be easily compressed into a smaller space.
42Pascal’s Principle, continued Chapter 7Section 3 Fluids and MotionPascal’s Principle, continuedBecause of Pascal’s principle, the touch of a foot can stop tons of moving metal.
43Chapter 7 Concept Mapping Forces in FluidsConcept MappingUse the terms below to complete the Concept Mapping on the next slide.depthdensitywater pressurepressurefluidswateratmospheric pressure