Presentation on theme: "Overview of Research Outline Ways of Knowing The Scientific Approach What is Research? Scientific Method: The Research Loop Goals of Science."— Presentation transcript:
Overview of Research Outline Ways of Knowing The Scientific Approach What is Research? Scientific Method: The Research Loop Goals of Science Types of Research 4 Types of Research Designs Types of Variables Hypotheses and Theory Which Design to Use? Evaluating Research
Intuitive vs. Empirical Sources of Knowledge Intuition Tenacity (e.g., habit, repeated exposure, superstition) Authority (e.g., moral, psychological, intellectual leaders) Reason (i.e., logical syllogisms) Serendipity (e.g., Columbus’ & India) Empiricism (relies on formal methods of observation)
THE SCIENTIFIC APPROACH Limitations of Intuition Intuition relies unquestioningly on personal judgment Involves cognitive and motivational biases Erroneous conclusions about cause and effect (e.g., Fundamental Attribution Error)
THE SCIENTIFIC APPROACH Skepticism, Science, and the Empirical Approach Empiricism Falsifiability Peer review Integrating Intuition, Skepticism, and Authority
Elements of Goodstein’s Evolved Theory of Science Observations accurately reported to others + Search for discovery and verification of ideas + Open exchange and competition among ideas + Peer review of research
THE SCIENTIFIC APPROACH Characteristics of pseudoscience Hypotheses generated are not typically testable If scientific tests are reported, methodology is not scientific and validity of data is questionable Supportive evidence is anecdotal and does not cite scientific references Claims ignore conflicting evidence Claims tend to be vague, and appeal to pre-conceived ideas Claims are never revised
What is Research? A systematic process of asking and attempting to answer questions about the world.
Scientific Method: 5 Steps 1. Identify a Research Problem or Question 2. Develop Hypotheses and Research Design 3. Conduct the Study 4. Test the Hypotheses 5. Communicate Results** -File Drawer Problem Research findings often create new research questions which result in a “Research Loop”
Scientific Method Steps
Goals of Science Description: -What is the relationship found between alcohol consumption and aggression? Prediction: -How many aggressive acts will a person exhibit if he/she were to consume 3 beers? Causation & Explanation: -Does alcohol intoxication and/or social expectations about drinking behavior increase aggression?
Determining Causality 1. Temporal Precedence: The cause must precede the effect 2. Covariation Principle: The effect occurs when the cause is present, but does not occur when the cause is not present 3. Elimination of Alternative Explanations: Plausible explanations for the causal relationship are ruled out.
Types of Research Approaches Basic Science vs. Applied Approaches Qualitative vs. Quantitative Approaches
Basic Science vs. Applied Approaches Basic Science: Further an understanding of psychological functioning (e.g., What is the nature or basis of people’s self-esteem?) Applied Research: -Provide practical solutions to optimize psychological functioning (e.g., How do we increase people’s self- esteem?)
Qualitative vs. Quantitative Approaches Qualitative Approach: Collects and examines responses from people without translating the responses into numbers; Emphasis on Broad Themes of phenomena of interest. Quantitative Approach: Similar to qualitative but does rely on numbers to represent phenomena. Emphasis on Specific Tests of phenomena of interest.
3 Basic Types of Research Designs Non Experimental Designs Archival-Correlational Observational -Program Evaluation True Experimental Designs Manipulation –Randomization -Control Group Quasi-Experimental Designs Similar to true experimental method but lacks 1 or more of its core features
Psychological Variables & The “Soft Science” A Variable = any observable characteristic that is not constant Psychological variables = characteristics of psychological functioning (i.e., thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, and the processes that regulate them) that vary in people. -”Hypothetical Constructs” that by nature are abstract ideas/concepts -Often are ambiguous, -Difficult to define and measure Psychology is considered a “soft science” because of the inherent qualities of the variables that are examined. -To scientifically examine research questions involving psychological variables they must be precisely defined and measured.
Conceptual and Operational Definitions of Variables Empirical examination of psychological variables, requires that they be (1) conceptually defined, and (2) translated into concrete, observable forms. 1. Conceptual Definitions = broadly based dictionary like descriptions of a variable. ( e.g., Self-Esteem = The general extent to which a person has positive or negative feelings of self-worth). 2. Operational Definition of variables = the specific way that a variable is measured, manipulated, or “operating” within the context of a study. (e.g., Self-Esteem = the score a person gets on a self- esteem questionnaire that he/she had completed).
The Basic Structure of a Study Independent Variables (IVs) In general, an IV is theorized to exert meaningful influence on a particular outcome (i.e., DV). Within true-experiments an IV is systematically manipulated to cause changes in the DV. Dependent Variables (DVs) In general, a DV reflects the characteristic that researchers are seeking to describe, predict, or explain. Reflects the outcome that emerges in response to the IVs. Differences in the DV are attributed to (or are caused by) the varying amounts or levels of the IV (i.e., the values of the DV depend upon the levels of the IV) IVDV Studies examine the pattern of relationships among variables:
Issues of Interpreting IV and DV Relationships Limits often exist when interpreting the relationship between IVs and DVs, particularly “causal” relations. Directionality problem X Y; Y X; or bi-directionality? The Third variable problem When the IV & DV relationship is attributable to another variable (Z) Exercise Longevity (Y) 3 rd Variable (Z) (X)
Systematic vs. Random Influences Upon the IV and DV Relationships Confounding Variable Reasoned to exert meaningful influence on the IV & DV relationship IS NOT measured Because its value is unknown, its influence is also unknown reflects random error, or (uncontrolled) influence. Blurs, distorts, or obscures the true IV & DV relationships, complicates theoretical understanding of them. Control Variable Reasoned to exert meaningful influence on the IV & DV relationship IS intentionally measured Because its value is known, its influence is detectable and systematically observed. i.e., Determining the IV & DV relationship after having controlled for (kept constant) the influence of the 3 rd variable. Helps to more clearly illustrate the IV & DV relationships and a theoretical understanding of them.
Hypotheses and Theories Hypothesis = a formally stated testable prediction about the pattern of relationships to be found among variables Theory = A set of interrelated statements proposed to explain phenomena
Interplay Between Theory and Research THEORY Theory guides research RESEARCH Research tests theory -verifies -suggests changes
Approaches to Research Development Top-Down vs. Bottom-Up Approaches Hypotheses may be used to create or broaden theories by inductive reasoning (Bottom-Up) or Theories may be used to test hypotheses by deductive reasoning (Top-Down)
Bottom-Up/Inductive Reasoning Reasoning that proceeds from specific cases to general conclusions or theories. Used in early stages of development of studying a phenomenon. Relies on observations or data to help create or extend prior ideas or theories about relationships that exist in the world
Top-Down: Deductive Reasoning Reasoning that proceeds from general theories to specific cases. Used when there is a well-established theory that predicts certain observable outcomes. Once a comprehensive theory is established specific predictions may be made from the theory and tested through experimentation
Which Design to Use? It depends on your particular goals, but… Begin with non experimental methods that capitalize on identifying and describing relationships between variables. -For example, first observe behaviors in natural settings (i.e., field studies), and then utilize interviews or survey research (i.e., correlational studies). Then, use Quasi-Experimental and True-Experimental Designs to help explain the relationships between variables. For example, determine the causal relationships between variables or how much change occurs in a DV in response to manipulated levels of an IV Ultimately, Convergence (similarity) in the pattern of findings across multiple methods is best!
Evaluating Research A variety of standards exist for assessing the quality of a theory and research findings. 1. Reliability = consistency in measurement 2. Validity = accuracy of constructs and measures -internal-external-construct validity 3. Replication = consistency in research findings when comparing equivalent or similarly conducted studies
Distinguishing Reliability and Validity Not Reliable, Not Valid Reliable but Not Valid Reliable and Valid