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Module 7 Applied Exercise and Health Fitness 2: Resistance Training.

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Presentation on theme: "Module 7 Applied Exercise and Health Fitness 2: Resistance Training."— Presentation transcript:

1 Module 7 Applied Exercise and Health Fitness 2: Resistance Training

2 Module 7 Aims and Objectives Aim: To develop an understanding of the application of resistance training in the development of the health related fitness components Objectives: To demonstrate confidence, sensitivity, style, safety, creativity and individuality in planning and teaching resistance training programmes in a variety of situations

3 Continuous Assessment Two practical tests –Assessment 1 - 25% –Assessment 2 – 55% (peer teach) A short answer written paper –(20%)

4 Resistance Training The performance of an action that requires the body’s musculature to exert force in order to equal, or overcome, an externally applied force

5 Benefits of Resistance Training Improvements in muscular strength Increased muscular endurance Increased muscular hypertrophy (fibre recruitment/diameter) Reduced injury potential Facilitates calorific expenditure and favourable changes in body composition Promotes postural development

6 Benefits contd. Improves body image/self-perceptions of appearance Facilitates functional fitness and improved quality of life Performance enhancement

7 Resistance Training Terminology Isotonic contraction: The muscle develops tension while shortening or lengthening (the joint angle changes) Concentric contraction: The muscle develops tension while shortening (positive) Eccentric contraction: The muscle develops tension while lengthening (negative)

8 Terminology contd. Isometric contraction: The muscle develops tension without changing length (joint angle stays the same) Isokinetic contraction: Maximal tension is developed throughout the full range of movement. Speed is also kept constant throughout the movement. Requires specialised equipment.

9 Terminology contd. Agonist: The muscle that is working, i.e. causing the joint movement Antagonist:A muscle that acts in opposition to the action caused by the agonist

10 Terminology contd. Stabiliser: A muscle that, though not involved in the action itself, contracts isometrically in order to offer stability during the performance of the exercise Synergist: A muscle that aids another muscle in its action

11 Terminology contd. Valsalva manoeuvre: The act of holding one’s breath (closed epiglottis) while performing a lift, causing increased pressure in the thoracic cavity, which can lead to a sudden increase in blood pressure and a blackout Intra-abdominal pressure: Increased pressure in the abdominal cavity, which facilitates spinal stabilization (abdominal tension)

12 Terminology contd. Repetition (rep): One single lift Repetitions (reps): The number of times an exercise movement is repeated without rest Set: A group of repetitions of an exercise, e.g. 3 sets of 8 reps = 3 x 8 Resistance: The load against which we exert, or the weight lifted

13 Terminology cond. Muscular failure: The point at which maximal lactate tolerance occurs and at which the individual is unable to complete the repetition in perfect form, e.g. Rep Max Isolation exercise: Targets one specific muscle group as the prime mover Compound exercise: Targets more than one muscle group

14 Terminology contd Sticking point: The point of least biomechanical assistance, where gravitational effect is greatest and the application of muscular force is weakest Repetition maximum: The max number of reps that can be completed with a given resistance to the point of fatigue, e.g. 10 RM

15 Terminology contd. Over-grip: Palms of the hands facing the body in a natural front grip position Under-grip: Palms of the hands facing away from the body Alternate/reverse-grip: One hand in over-grip position, the other in under-grip

16 Manual Lifting Procedures Approach as near as possible to the load Relax the knees Position the feet to ensure a sound/stable base of support Lower the hands Look down Grasp the bar (firmly) Test the weight - if too heavy, summon a spotter Raise the head/inhale Lift through the legs Exhale on exertion Keep the load close to the body Do not rush

17 Session 2 Objectives Aim: To introduce students to safety issues and various types of resistance equipment, and to teaching a range of exercises for the chest Objectives: Outline the key safety considerations for (a) handling weights (b) a lifting area (c) supervision of a weights room Identify different types of resistance training equipment and outline the main characteristics of each type Compare and contrast free weights and machine weights and the advantages/disadvantages of each

18 Demonstrate effective instructional skills for teaching resistance training exercises Demonstrate correct personal technique, posture, 3Bs, stability, alignment, momentum, control, safety and use of equipment when performing (a) bench/inclined press, (b) supine/inclined fly Analyse each of the above lifts in terms of movement and biomechanical principles

19 Safety in the Weights Room Equipment Safety,Personal Safety Be familiar with equipment Use adequate space Use evenly balanced/secured loads Always test the weight Dismantle heavy loads and return weights to stacks after use Know your limitations Warm up thoroughly Stretch muscles before and after use Adopt a sound steady base Use safe lifting technique Enlist a spotter when necessary

20 Safety in the Weights Room contd. equipment Safety, Personal Safety Adjust machine settings i.e. height of seat, no. of plates etc. before use Do not abuse equipment - your safety and that of others is at risk Use correct breathing technique Ensure full ROM Maintain proper form Control the weight - do not allow momentum to take over No eating Drink water regularly

21 Supervision Use good screening procedures Regular maintenance inspection Individual programmes High standard of hygiene First aid available, trained staff and emergency phone numbers Posters - safety and instructional Adequate heating, lighting and ventilation Correct floor surface

22 Types of Resistance Training Equipment Free weights Hydraulic Air pressure Body resistance Elastic Plyometric Boxes Medicine Ball Battling Ropes Weights stacks and pulleys/levers Bi lateral Isolateral Variable/accomo dating resistance

23 Teaching Methodology Name the exercise Name the body parts Name the muscles Silent demonstration Demonstrate with teaching points Client performs Observe and give positive correction

24 Machines vs. Free Weights Characteristics Machine Free Weights

25 Machines vs. Free Weights Characteristics MachineFree Weights

26 Structure of a Resistance Session Warm up: General (CV work) or localised (a number of reps completed with light weight) Pre-stretch: Muscle groups to be used in the session (approx 10 secs) Main body of session: Commencing with low intensity (light weight/low reps) and progressing to moderate/high intensity

27 Structure of a Resistance Session contd. Cool down: Tapering off of intensity Post stretch: All muscle groups used in the session (min. 15 sec +)

28 Guidelinesfor LME Programming Beginner Guidelines for LME Programming Beginner Freq: 2 to 6 times per week Intensity: 50% to 70% of 1RM No. of exercises: 6 to 12+ Sets: 2 to 4 Reps: 10-25 Rest: 1 minute between sets or for circuit training the time it takes to get to next station (1-2 minutes for high repetition sets of 15-20 reps or more) Recovery: 24 hrs+, depending on fitness levels

29 General Guidelines for Strength Training Beginners Freq: 2 Total Body Intensity: 60% to 70% of 1 RM No. of exercises: 6 to 8 Sets: 1 to 3 Reps: 8 to 12 Rest: 2 to 3 mins between sets Recovery: 48 hrs between sessions minimum Advanced Freq: 4 to 6 times per week using split routines Intensity: 80% to 100% of 1 RM No. of exercises:8-12 Sets: 3 to 4+ Reps: 1 to 8 depending on intensity Rest: 2 to 3 mins for higher intense exercises that use heavier loads 1-2 minutes between the lower intense exercises with light loads

30 Guidelines for Hypertrophy Freq: 2 /3 per week total body for beginner 4 to 6 times per week using split routines Intensity: 70% to 100% of 1RM No. of exercises: 6 to 12+ Sets: 1 to 6 Reps: 8 to 12 depending on intensity Rest: 2 to 3 minutes for high loading core exercise sets and 1-2 minutes for lesser intensity sets

31 Definition of Terms Programme: The sequential arrangement of exercises in documented format, designed to enhance a specific training effect Conditioning: A training programme designed to systematically exercise all parts of the body and to provide a broad base of strength on which to build a higher level of strength

32 Strength: The ability to exert maximal force in a once- off effort e.g. 1 RM Endurance: The ability to repetitively exert force over an extended period of time e.g. 15 RM Sticking point: The point of least biomechanical assistance at which maximal muscle-loading occurs Training plateau: The point of diminishing returns at which no further improvements in strength can be achieved. Programme manipulation is necessary.

33 Methods of Progression An increase in stress over that of normal working-load stress Increase in weight Increase in reps/sets Reduced rest period Slower repetitions Change in exercise angle/method Blitzing Pyramiding Peak contraction Super sets Cheating Negative reps Pre-exhaustion Forced reps

34 Sample Programme Card ExerciseWeight/ Intensity SetsRepsRemarks Name of Exercise to be performed Weight to be lifted or % of 1 RM Number of sets to be performed Number of reps in each set Key teaching points or important note

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