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Ch3.2 and 3.3

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**Fluids What do liquids and gases have in common? States of matter**

Do not have a fixed shape Ability to flow, particles can move past each other easily

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Buoyant Force Why doesn’t a rubber duck sink to the bottom of a bath tub? A force pushes the rubber duck to the top of the water.

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Buoyant Force This force is an upward force that fluids exert on matter. What keeps the ice floating?

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**Ice cube floating in water**

The pressure exerted on the right is equal to the pressure exerted on the left. Theses forces cancel out.

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**Ice cube floating in water**

Pressure increases as depth increases. Pressure increases Net force is upward (buoyant force)

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**Archimedes’ principle**

The buoyant force on an object is an upward force equal to the weight of the fluid that the object displaces.

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**Change the shape of an object and you can change the density.**

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**A solid brick’s density is 1. 9g/cm3. And the density of water is 1**

A solid brick’s density is 1.9g/cm3. And the density of water is 1.00g/cm3 . How could you get the brick to float?

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**Where have you heard the word “pressure” in conversation?**

Air pressure Water pressure Tire pressure Blood pressure

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Pressure When you pump up a bike tire, what is going on inside the tire?

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Pressure

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**Pressure Pressure is calculated by using the equation below.**

pressure = Force area Pressure unit is pascal (Pa). It is equal to 1N/m2

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Pascal’s Principle When you blow a bubble, you blow air in one direction. So why does the bubble get rounder as you blow, instead on longer? Fluid property: Fluids exert pressure evenly in all directions.

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**Pascal’s Principle P1 = P2 So our equation can now look like this:**

F1 = F2 A1 A2

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Pascal’s Principle

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What do you observe?

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**Fluids in motion Give an example of a moving fluid. air moving as wind**

water moving through pipes food coloring moving through water

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Fluids in motion Fluids move faster through smaller areas than through larger areas

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**Viscosity How are honey and lemonade similar? How are they different?**

Viscosity is a liquid’s resistance to flow. It is the attraction between the particles that make it viscous.

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**Examples Think of 5 every day items that are viscous.**

Can you find a way to change their viscosity? Temperature

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Ideal Gas P1V1 = P2V2 T T2 The three laws we will look at take a variable out of this equation and hold it constant.

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**Ideal Gas Boyle’s Law P1V1 = P2V2**

Temperature stays constant, so we remove it from the combined gas equation. This was the marshmallow experiment.

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Ideal Gas Boyle’s Law – Pressure increases, volume decreases. They are inversely proportional.

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**Ideal Gas Charles’ Law V1 = V2 T1 T2 Pressure stays constant**

Frozen balloon Room temp balloon

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Ideal Gas Charles’ Law

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Ideal Gas Gay-Lussac’s Law P1 = P2 T T2 Directly proportional

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Ideal Gas

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**Practice Problems Charles’ Law**

If I have 45L of helium in a balloon at 298K and increase the temperature of the balloon to 328K, what will the new volume of the balloon be?

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**Practice Problem Charles Law**

I have 130L of gas in a piston at a temperature of 523K. If I cool the gas until the volume decreases to 85L, what will the temperature of the gas be?

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**Practice Problem Gay-Lussac’s Law**

10.0 L of a gas is found to exert kPa at 298K. What would be the required temperature to change the pressure to kPa?

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