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Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Reporting and Interpreting Investments in Other Corporations Chapter 12.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Reporting and Interpreting Investments in Other Corporations Chapter 12."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Reporting and Interpreting Investments in Other Corporations Chapter 12

2 12-2 Understanding the Business A company may invest in the securities of another company to: Earn a return on idle funds. (Passive investments) Control the other company. Influence the other company’s policies and activities.

3 12-3 Types of Investments Investments in debt securities are always considered passive investments. Passive investments are made to earn a high rate of return on funds that may be needed for future purposes.

4 12-4 Types of Investments Equity security investments are presumed passive if the investing company owns less than 20% of the outstanding voting shares. Investor is not interested in controlling or influencing other company. Passive investments are made to earn a high rate of return on funds that may be needed for future purposes.

5 12-5 Investments made with the intent of exerting significant influence over another corporation. The ability of the investing company to have an important impact on the operating and financial policies of another company. Significant Influence 20% - 50% outstanding shares Significant Influence 20% - 50% outstanding shares Types of Investments

6 12-6 Investments made with the intent to exert control over another corporation. >50% outstanding shares Control >50% outstanding shares Control The investing company has the ability to determine the operating and financial policies of another corporation. Types of Investments

7 12-7 Types of Investments and Accounting Methods The accounting method depends on the type of security and the level of ownership (influence).

8 12-8 Learning Objectives Analyze and report bond investments held to maturity.

9 12-9 Debt Held To Maturity: Amortized Cost Method Record at cost on acquisition date. Amortize discount or premium Record interest received Record principal received at maturity

10 12-10 Debt Held To Maturity: Amortized Cost Method On July 1, 2008, Dow Jones paid the par value of $100,000 for 8 percent bonds that mature on June 30, The 8 percent interest is paid on each June 30 and December 31. Management plans to hold the bonds until maturity. On July 1, 2008, Dow Jones paid the par value of $100,000 for 8 percent bonds that mature on June 30, The 8 percent interest is paid on each June 30 and December 31. Management plans to hold the bonds until maturity. The journal entry to record the investment is...

11 12-11 Debt Held To Maturity: Amortized Cost Method The journal entry to record the receipt of interest on December 31 of the first year is...

12 12-12 Debt Held To Maturity: Amortized Cost Method The journal entry to record the receipt of the principal payment at maturity is... $100,000 × 8% × 6/12

13 12-13 Debt Held To Maturity: Amortized Cost Method

14 12-14 Learning Objectives Analyze and report passive investments in securities using the market value approach.

15 12-15 Passive Investments: The Market Value Method Date of acquisition Investment is initially recorded at cost. Future measurement date Unrealized holding gains and losses are recognized. Investment carrying amount is adjusted to current market value.

16 12-16 Classifying Passive Investments NOTE: Realized gains and losses go on the Income Statement.

17 12-17 Securities Available for Sale (SAS) IFNews and Dow Jones both produce film. Dow Jones wants to acquire an ownership interest in IFNews. On January 5, Dow Jones acquires 10,000 of the 100,000 outstanding shares of IFNews on the open market at a cost of $60 per share. Dow Jones has no influence over IFNews, and does not plan to sell the shares in the near future. IFNews and Dow Jones both produce film. Dow Jones wants to acquire an ownership interest in IFNews. On January 5, Dow Jones acquires 10,000 of the 100,000 outstanding shares of IFNews on the open market at a cost of $60 per share. Dow Jones has no influence over IFNews, and does not plan to sell the shares in the near future.

18 12-18 Should the acquired shares be classified as Trading Securities or Securities Available for Sale? The journal entry to record the investment is... Securities Available for Sale (SAS) Dow Jones does not plan to actively trade the shares. Instead, they will be held to earn a return on invested funds that may be needed for future operations. The shares should be classified as Securities Available for Sale.

19 12-19 The investment may be a current asset or a noncurrent asset, depending on management’s intended holding period. Securities Available for Sale (SAS)

20 12-20 Securities Available for Sale (SAS) On July 2, Dow Jones receives a $10,000 dividend from IFNews. Prepare the journal entry to record the dividend.

21 12-21 On July 2, Dow Jones receives a $10,000 dividend from IFNews. Prepare the journal entry to record the dividend. Securities Available for Sale (SAS)

22 12-22 By December 31, Dow Jones’ fiscal year-end, the market value of IFNews’ shares has dropped from $60 to $58 per share. How much has Dow Jones’ portfolio value changed? By December 31, Dow Jones’ fiscal year-end, the market value of IFNews’ shares has dropped from $60 to $58 per share. How much has Dow Jones’ portfolio value changed? The journal entry to recognize the change in market value is... Securities Available for Sale (SAS)

23 12-23 The unrealized holding loss would be reported in the stockholders’ equity section of Dow Jones’ balance sheet. Securities Available for Sale (SAS)

24 12-24 Comparing Trading and Securities Available for Sale

25 12-25 Learning Objectives Analyze and report investments involving significant influence using the equity method.

26 12-26 Investments For Significant Influence: Equity Method Used when an investor can exert significant influence over an investee. It is presumed that the investment was made as a long-term investment.

27 12-27 Date of acquisition Investment is initially recorded at cost. Future measurement date Unrealized holding gains and losses are not recognized. Investment carrying amount is adjusted for dividends received, and a percentage share of the investee’s income. Investments For Significant Influence: Equity Method

28 12-28 Investments For Significant Influence: Equity Method

29 12-29 On January 2, TeleCom, Inc. acquires a 30% interest in Sports.com at a cost of $2,000,000. Prepare the journal entry to record TeleCom’s investment. Investments For Significant Influence: Equity Method

30 12-30 Investments For Significant Influence: Equity Method On January 2, TeleCom, Inc. acquires a 30% interest in Sports.com at a cost of $2,000,000. Prepare the journal entry to record TeleCom’s investment.

31 12-31 On March 31, Sports.com pays $200,000 in dividends, $60,000 (30%) of which goes to TeleCom. Record TeleCom’s receipt of the dividend. Investments For Significant Influence: Equity Method

32 12-32 Dividends are not revenue under the equity method. They are treated as a reduction of the investment account. Investments For Significant Influence: Equity Method On March 31, Sports.com pays $200,000 in dividends, $60,000 (30%) of which goes to TeleCom. Record TeleCom’s receipt of the dividend.

33 12-33 Sports.com net income for the year is $1,600,000. TeleCom’s 30% share is $480,000. Record TeleCom’s share of Sports.com’s income. Investments For Significant Influence: Equity Method

34 12-34 TeleCom credits Equity in Investee Earnings (an income statement account) for its share of Sports.com’s earnings. Investments For Significant Influence: Equity Method Sports.com net income for the year is $1,600,000. TeleCom’s 30% share is $480,000. Record TeleCom’s share of Sports.com’s income.

35 12-35 Focus on Cash Flows Investing activities: Purchase of investment (cash outflow) Sale of investment (cash inflow) Investing activities: Purchase of investment (cash outflow) Sale of investment (cash inflow) Operating activities: Gain on sale of investment (subtract from net income) Loss on sale of investment (add to net income) Equity in earnings of investee (subtract from net income) Dividends from investee (add to net income) Unrealized holding gains trading securities (subtract from net income) Unrealized holding losses trading securities (add to net income) Operating activities: Gain on sale of investment (subtract from net income) Loss on sale of investment (add to net income) Equity in earnings of investee (subtract from net income) Dividends from investee (add to net income) Unrealized holding gains trading securities (subtract from net income) Unrealized holding losses trading securities (add to net income)

36 12-36 Learning Objectives Analyze and report investments in controlling interests.

37 12-37 Controlling Interests: Mergers and Acquisitions Off and running with less than 20%... Clearing the 20% hurdle to gain influence... Vaulting over the 50% mark to gain control!

38 12-38 Horizontal integration Vertical integration Controlling Interests: Mergers and Acquisitions Synergy

39 12-39 What Are Consolidated Statements? The acquiring company is the parent. The company acquired is the subsidiary. Consolidated statements combine two or more companies into a single set of statements. The acquiring company is the parent. The company acquired is the subsidiary. Consolidated statements combine two or more companies into a single set of statements. Any transactions between the parent and subsidiary must be eliminated when preparing consolidated financial statements.

40 12-40 Occurs when one company buys another company. The amount by which the purchase price exceeds the fair market value of net assets acquired. Only purchased goodwill is an intangible asset. Goodwill Accounting for Goodwill

41 12-41 Not amortized. Subject to assessment for impairment of value and may be written down. Goodwill Accounting for Goodwill

42 12-42 Recording a Merger Dow Jones paid $100,000,000 in cash to purchase all the stock of IFNews. Dow Jones merged IFNews’ operations into its own operations, and IFNews ceased to exist as a separate entity. The following information is taken from IFNews’ balance sheet at the date of acquisition: Should Dow Jones record goodwill?

43 12-43 Recording a Merger Dow Jones determined that IFNews’ plant and equipment had a fair value of $35,000,000. The book value at the acquisition date was $30,000,000. The balance sheet amounts for other assets and current liabilities are fair values. Now let’s determine goodwill. The journal entry to record the acquisition of IFNews is...

44 12-44 Recording a Merger

45 12-45 Learning Objectives Analyze and interpret the return on assets ratio.

46 12-46 Key Ratio Analysis Measures how much the firm earned for each dollar of investment. In general, a higher return indicates management is doing a better job selecting investments. For the year 2003, Dow Jones had $170,599 of net income. Interest expense was negligible. End-of-year assets were $1,304,154 and beginning-of-year assets were $1,207,659. (All numbers in thousands.) Return on Assets Net Income + Interest Expense (net of tax) Average Total Assets =

47 12-47 Key Ratio Analysis Return on Assets = $170,599 $1,304, ,207,659) ÷ 2 = 13.6% Return on Assets Net Income + Interest Expense (net of tax) Average Total Assets =

48 12-48 Preparing Consolidated Statements Chapter Supplement A

49 12-49 Consolidated Financial Statements When one company acquires another company and both companies continue their separate legal existence, consolidated financial statements must be prepared. Let’s revisit the Dow Jones acquisition of IFNews, assuming both companies continued their separate legal existence, and prepare consolidated financial statements. When one company acquires another company and both companies continue their separate legal existence, consolidated financial statements must be prepared. Let’s revisit the Dow Jones acquisition of IFNews, assuming both companies continued their separate legal existence, and prepare consolidated financial statements.

50 12-50 Consolidated Financial Statements Goodwill = ? Dow Jones uses $100 million of its $123 million in current assets to purchase all the stock of IFNews for $100 million. IFNews’ net assets (assets less liabilities) are $80 million at the date of purchase, but have a fair market value of $85 million. Goodwill = $100 million – $85 million = $15 million Fair Value Adjustment = ? Fair Value Adjustment = $85 million - $80 million Fair Value Adjustment = $ 5 million

51 12-51 Consolidated Balance Sheet Eliminate the Investment against the Equity of IFN, establish goodwill, and record the assets at fair value.

52 12-52 Consolidated Income Statement $1 million additional depreciation on the $5 million additional fair value of assets acquired.

53 12-53 End of Chapter 12


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