2Defining Public Opinion There are many definitions but our text offers two popular definitions:“Public opinion is the sum of individual opinions on an issue affecting those individuals.”“Public opinion is a collection of views held by persons interested in the subject.”Inherent in these and other definitions is the concept of self interest.
3How Events Form Public Opinion Opinion is highly sensitive to events that have an impact on the public at large or a particular segment of the public.By and large, public opinion does not anticipate events. It only reacts to them.Events trigger formation of public opinion.Events of unusual magnitude are likely to swing public opinion temporarily from one extreme to another.
4The Role of Opinion Leaders as Catalysts Opinion leaders—Five Traits:Highly interested in a subject or issueBetter informed on an issue than average personAvid consumers of mass mediaEarly adopters of new ideasGood organizers who can get other people to take actionTwo types of opinion leaders:Formalinformal
5Formal Opinion Leaders Formal opinion leaders are usually elected officials, presidents/CEOs of companies, or heads of membership groups.News reporters often ask such people for statements when a specific issue relates to their positions of responsibility, concern and/or expertise.People in formal leadership positions are also called “power leaders.”
6Informal Opinion Leaders Informal opinion leaders are those who have clout with peers because of some special characteristic.They may be role models who are admired and emulated or opinion leaders who can exert pressure on others to go along with something.Informal opinion leaders exert considerable influence on their peer groups by being highly informed, articulate, and credible on particular issues.Think about your own friends and peers who may influence your views on, say, music, fashion, entertainment choices.
7Characteristics of Opinion Leaders A survey of 20,000 Americans by the Roper Organization found that only 10 to 12 percent of the general public are opinion leaders.These “influentials”—those whom other people seek out for advice—fit the opinion leader profile of:
8Opinion Leader Profile Active in the communityHave a college degreeEarn relatively high incomesRegularly read newspapers and magazinesActively participate in recreational activitiesShow environmental concern by recycling
9The Media’s RoleThis chapter also examines the role of mass media in being a conduit in how opinion “flows” from opinion leaders to the public.By specializing in this transfer of information, PR people are major players in forming public opinion because they often provide the mass media with the information in the first place, theorists say.Some studies have found that as much as 50 percent of what the media carry comes from PR sources.
10Media Effects Theories Agenda-Setting Theory- Does the media set the agenda for public discussion? People discuss what TV news covers and what’s in the newspaper, for example. Through the selection of stories, the media may “tell” (indirectly/unintentionally?) the public what to think about, but not necessarily what to think, the theory goes.Media-Dependency Theory– This is the idea that people are highly dependent on the media for information. This is especially so in crises situations. In such cases, PR people can be quite influential in controlling and shaping information as journalists are dependent on official spokespeople during the first stages of crises.Framing Theory– This is how journalists select certain facts, themes, treatments, and even words to “frame” a story. This can play a major role in public perceptions of an issue or problem.Conflict Theory – Because the media can play a vital role in presenting and explaining conflicts, it is necessary for people involved in public relations to know how to work effectively with the media to settle conflicts.
11PersuasionPersuasion is part of the dominant view of Public Relations as being about “persuasive communications on behalf of clients.”Persuasion can be used to:change or neutralize hostile opinionscrystallize latent (or already existing positive) opinions and positive attitudesconserve favorable opinions
12Persuasive Messages– Moving People to Act Such messages often include information that appeals to an audience’s self-interest. Theme examples:Make/Save MoneySave TimeAvoid EffortMore ComfortBetter HealthCleanerEscape PainGain PraiseBe PopularBe Loved/AcceptedKeep PossessionsProtect Family/ReputationBe StylishHave Beautiful ThingsSatisfy AppetiteBe Like OthersAvoid Trouble/CriticismBe an IndividualBe Safe/SecureMake Work Easier
13Persuasive Message Techniques Throughout history these devices have been used: Drama– helps create interest and engage an audienceStatistics– stats impress people. Use of numbers can convey objectivity, size, and importance in a credible way that can influence public opinionSurveys and Polls– like stats, can impress but people should read the fine printExamples- opinions can be bolstered and be more persuasive if supported by examplesTestimonials– using celebrity endorsers or victims/survivors can humanize messageEndorsements– credibility through “third party endorsements” (can be, for example, doctors, celebrities, national organizations, or media through editorials)Emotional Appeals– fundraising letters or commercials from nonprofit groups use this persuasive device a lot
14Research on Persuasion Positive appeals are generally more effective than negative appeals for message retention and compliance.Radio and TV messages tend to be more persuasive than print, but if the message is complex, better comprehension is achieved through the print media.Strong emotional appeals and fear arousal are most effective when the audience has minimal concern about or interest in the topic.Logical appeals, using facts and figures, are better for highly educated, sophisticated audiences than strong emotional appeals.Self-interest can be a strong motivator.A celebrity or attractive model is most effective when the audience has low involvement, the theme is simple, and broadcast channels are used. An exciting spokesperson can attract attention to a message that may otherwise be ignored.
15Propaganda and its techniques Propaganda defined: “The deliberate and systematic attempt to shape perceptions, manipulate cognitions, and direct behavior to achieve a response that furthers the desired intent of the propagandist.” (Jowett and O’Donnell)
16Propaganda: Past and Present In World War I and II, propaganda was associated with the information activities of the enemy. Germany and Japan were sending out “propaganda” whereas the U.S. and our allies were disseminating “truth.”Today, propaganda connotes falsehood, lies, deceit, disinformation, and duplicity.Social scientists say the word propaganda should be used only to denote activity that sells a belief system or constitutes political or ideological dogma.
17Propaganda Techniques Advertising and public relations messages for commercial purposes do use several techniques commonly associated with propagandaThese techniques have interesting, colorful names such as:“plain folks”“testimonials”“bandwagon”“card stacking””transfer”“glittering generalities.”(p. 238)
18Ethical ConcernsA student of public relations should be aware of propaganda techniques to make certain that he or she doesn’t intentionally use them to deceive or mislead the public.Ethical responsibilities exist in every form of persuasive communication.(see “Ethics of Persuasion” bullet points, page 241)###